*0 ^{th} isomorphism: Self:*

*Œ-Point x ∞ World = Constant mind Mapping*

Black holes are ‘gravitational animals’ which become in the central swarm the ‘DNA’ of the ‘gala cell’, which controls its reproductive stars. The galaxy in that sense must be compared not only with an atom at physical level but with a cell at organic one.

Black holes are protons of the cosmic scales in a new ∆=10 game. They embody the ‘mind’ of the galaxy. They are the key to explain the stability of the Universe, almost immortal quark systems, the most perfect top predator of the game of existence…

**0. MINDS-POINTS OF VIEW IN PHYSICAL SYSTEMS**

**TIME VORTICES. CHARGES & MASSES – UNIFICATION EQUATION**

**MASS IS INFORMATION: Equivalence Principle: invariance of topological form.**

*In the graph, the evolution of the concept of mass in relativity, from the initial image of an abstract substance in the center of an accelerated vortex of space-time, proper of the abstract, pre–world war age, when Einstein first published his work on gravitation, to the first pictures obtained in bubble chambers in the postwar age, to the realization that each mass is a fractal space-time made of smaller cyclic motions proper of twenty-first century. Fractal relativity. The smaller motions are quarks, the bigger motions are quark stars, pulsars, and black holes. Today we can model any type of vortex of space-time with fractal mathematics, as each small vortex transfers the momentum to the bigger vortex, which emerges as a macroscopic entity. Thus, we conclude that a black hole is a fractal concentration of the densest matter of the Universe, quarks, since quarks represent on average more than 99.9% of the matter of our bodies. Those improvements on the details of mass theory, based on the advancement of its mathematical tools (discovery of fractals, chaos theory, and the five postulates of non-Euclidean geometry) is the natural way in which the evolution of science happens, departing from sound logic principles.*

In the text quoted from the *New Scientist* that opened chapter 2, we came to the conclusion that the Universe has a fractal structure because it is made of fractal space and fractal time. But what is space and time? In simple terms, here are the two essential morphologies of the Universe: Space is the lineal, expansive energy of the vacuum in eternal motion (seeing as still distance or space, according to the paradox of Galileo). And fractal times are cyclical clocks of information, whose frequency or rhythm encodes the information of the Universe.

So space and lineal energy on one side and time and cyclical clocks of information on the other are synonymous. The static, continuous concepts of space and time become then sums of discontinuous, moving pieces of energy and infinite clocks of information that our senses put together into an abstract continuous single space-time. One we have “exploded” and given movement to the abstraction of space and time, it is easy to recognize the minimal bytes of energy and bits of information of the real, physical Universe. Physical information, masses and charges, and physical energy, forces, which are not substances but motions, events in time of cyclical, informative nature (masses and charges) or energetic, spatial, expanding shape (energy), that constantly transform into each other ad eternal, creating the essential rhythm of the physical Universe:

*E (forces) < =>Tƒ- Particles (masses and charges)*

The key to grasp the concept of mass as a vortex of acceleration are two physical laws: one of classic relativity, the principle of equivalence between accelerated motions and masses, and one of fractal relativity, the paradox of Galileo, the fact that we perceive reality either as a moving energy (in the case of a mass, as a vortex) or as fixed space (in the case of mass as a particle). All moves and doesn’t move depending on the way we look at it. Thus, all spaces have inner motion, even if our senses don’t see that motion or fix that motion into forms of in/form/ation.

Mass is the great problem unresolved by quantum physicists in their model of the Universe since it is not an energetic but an informative form. Einstein, who had a visual, geometrical image of mass, defined it as a vortex that absorbed space-time, attracting in its flow everything else traveling on that space-time as a bathtub attracts all what is in the water it absorbs.

How did Einstein come to that idea?^{8} As many textbooks and visualizations explain, he realized that when we accelerate, as it happens in a Formula 1 car or a lift, we feel more weight. Thus, he made a bold statement: mass and acceleration are the same. If we feel mass when we accelerate, it is because mass is acceleration. But what type of acceleration?

The answer is actually quite simple, because it turns out that Newton had long ago discovered a beautiful formula to describe all the forces of the Universe: F=m × a.

Where *a *means a lineal acceleration and so *m* must be a cyclical acceleration. Indeed, there are no more types of accelerations and so Einstein (using, of course, more complex mathematics than Newton to refine his calculus, as mathematics had evolved a lot since Newton’s time) postulated that masses would be vortices of space-times *since only a vortex is a cyclical, accelerated movement.*

That principle of equivalence is the fundamental principle in which general relativity is based. It states merely that mass and cyclical acceleration are the same. It means in layman terms that a mass is not a material form but a movement. And of course, because that movement is an inward, cyclical movement, it deploys a resistance to be pushed outward in a lineal manner, which from our macroscopic view seems to give mass a solid position. Again this is intuitive. If you are a very small being turning at full speed, it will be very difficult to push you away. When you see a skater in a ring, he speeds up and closes his arms to move faster and become more stable in his position. Thus, the homology between acceleration and mass defines for a curved space the meaning of a mass, and the paradoxical fact that the smaller the vortex is, the faster it turns and the bigger the mass is. It is the same that happens in any tornado or hurricane: the closest you are to the center, the faster you turn and the more attractive the tornado is.

In that sense, what you experience as weight is the inertial resistance to any displacement of a vortex anchored in a point of space-time. The same happens in our macro universe when a skater turns around and bends his arms to spin faster. If he opens his arms spreading his vortex, he decelerates and moves easier in a lineal direction.

A mass is thus the inertial force that we need to push away, the accelerated vortex. Those vortex like spirals accelerating in a curved path, inward, are like the pictures we observe in accelerators, or the most recent pictures of masses we have obtained, in which indeed we see a fluctuating vacuum with the form of a vortex. Further on, we know that the frequency or rotational speed of those vortices, called spins, is related to the mass of each particle. So we have both, logic and experimental proofs. Of course, I have used here and will continue using the simple mathematics of Newton and the visual thought experiments of Einstein, to describe those concepts because this is a book for non-specialists.

Already Descartes said that the Universe was made of vortices and “res extensa,” that is, lineal space. What Einstein did was to apply the most modern non-Euclidean mathematics of his day to those well-known principles. So he improved greatly the detail of those vortices, as non-Euclidean geometry allowed much more refined calculations than those we could do with the mathematics of Newton, but in essence the principles stayed. So we can explain very easily in an intuitive manner, thanks to the principle of equivalence, a mass with a simple equation:

*Equivalence principle: mass = curved acceleration= cyclical vortex that resists displacement*

If we use the simpler mathematics of Newton to define Einstein’s mass, we can see in more detail the properties of such vortices, which can be described as *fluid vortices of the bits of information, the particles that create any of the multiple fractal space-time membranes of the Universe. Consider the simplest bidimensional equation of a vortex:*

*Vortex Speed × Radius-size of vortex = Vo × Ro = Constant Value*

Since the product of the speed and the radius is constant, the shorter the radius, the faster the speed. What this means is that any vortex paradoxically accelerates faster when it is smaller. So the product of a growing speed and diminishing radius remains constant. Hence we find that smaller particles that rotate faster have more mass. So the electron, which is bigger and rotates slower than the quark has less mass. In fact, the electron’s mass is 0.1% of the mass of an atom, which is all stored in the inner faster-rotating smaller quarks and gluons.

While in the cosmological scale, the black hole, which rotates at light speed and occupies the minimal space of all the cosmic bodies, is the most massive form of the Universe. Then it becomes a quark star called a pulsar, which has a center of strange quarks and a surface of dense neutrons.

It rotates also very fast, near the speed of light, and it has an enormous mass. We do not know what the substance of black holes is, but Einstein called them frozen stars and he said that if we were to obey the laws of the scientific method, they had to have a cut-off substance. Then when he died, we found quarks and so it is obvious that black holes, the densest rotating stars of the Universe, should be made of top quarks, the densest top quarks of the quantum world. Since black holes have very similar properties to those of a quark star or pulsar, ultra dense stars with enormous rotational speed, this fact reinforces the thesis that black holes are top stars.

But this fact, which anyone can understand, is ignored by quantum cosmologists because they don’t believe in Einstein; and of course, those who believe in Einstein are merely interested in the use of the more complex mathematical model of gravitation and mass, in which the principle of equivalence of Newton and Einstein is not so clear. The details of the trees prevent them from seeing the big picture of the forest. But here we are concerned with the picture that tells us that quarks are the atoms of the densest black holes and quark stars because only among the known particles, quarks are that heavy, and only among the known celestial bodies, black holes and quark stars are that heavy.

Further on, because dark matter represents 75% of the universe’s mass, very likely, dark matter is made of black holes, pulsars, and other types of quark stars.

Now when you get into details, the word *vortex* is substituted by *spin*, the word *curved cycle* by non-Euclidean geometry, and you use also two different names for the type of forces displayed by quark vortices (strong forces) and by black holes and pulsars (gravitational forces) because we are talking of two fractal scales of reality, the quantum microscopic world and the cosmological world. But those details that we will explain later in depth, unifying both scales, gravitation, and the quantum world with fractal equations (a long goal of Mr. Einstein, which I found thanks to the expansion of the postulates of non-Euclidean geometry that Mr. Einstein lacked) are of no importance to understand in simple mathematics, the meaning of mass:

*Max. rotational speed × min. radius= quarks and black holes= the densest masses of the cosmos*

*med. rotational speed × med. radius = electrons and stars*

*0 rotational speed × max. radius = light = 0 mass*

It is in those terms how it becomes easy to understand the different masses of different particles and cosmic bodies, related to their angular momentum or spin: the electron which turns slower in a wider circumference is far lighter than the proton that turns faster in a smaller space, which is lighter than the black hole which turns to the limit of speed of our world.

While the mass of light is zero because the electromagnetic wave never closes in to itself, but once it has made half a circumference downward, it switches upward and so it moves as a transversal, lineal wave without mass and maximal, infinite radius: *0 mass × infinite radius = K.*

In detail, light has an insignificant bit of mass because due to the rotation of galaxies (Mach principle), it has some curvature and it acquires more mass/frequency when it rotates around a quark or black hole vortex, finally evolving into a more complex form, absorbed by an electron, quark, or black hole.

Now it is easy to understand how mass (rotational motion) becomes energy (lineal movement) and vice versa (E=mc^{2 }and M=E/c^{2}). E=mc^{2 }means just that when energy approaches the c-limit of speed of our spacetime, as it cannot go faster, it deflects its energy that curls into cyclical motion into mass. This, of course, is another thing CERN pretends to research with the quark cannon. Because using quantum equations and Higgs particles, there is no way to understand how energy becomes mass and vice versa.

The Universe is simple. So a simpler explanation of reality is more truth, even if it is experimentally less refined in its initial conception. For example, Copernicus was simpler than Ptolemy. Further on, for many years, till Kepler and Newton refined its elliptical orbits into ellipses, Copernicus’s cyclical orbits were less accurate than Ptolemaic calculus, but the principles were sounder: The sun was put in the center and that simplified enormously the model. So it satisfied better Occam’s principle.

That is what the principle of equivalence between acceleration and gravity of Newton and Einstein does with masses: by considering that particles are cyclical, accelerated motions, not substances, this sounder principle simplifies all calculus, explains logically how mass attracts like a hurricane of space-time, and so it must be truer than the complicated quantum theories *of mass, as the Higgs Mechanism, which does not even explain how mass attracts in a coherent manner.*

**MASS IS INFORMATION: Equivalence Principle: invariance of topological form.**

All forces can be reduced to 2×2 types: lineal, gravitational and electromagnetic forces, which extend to infinity and curved strong and electroweak forces that exist inside the smaller atom’s space.

For that reason we talk in the cosmological realm of 2 membranes of space-time, the electromagnetic and gravitational scales. Yet according to duality, those two spaces should be balanced by two types of cyclical particles of information, also in perpetual motion, in such a manner that an eternal game of EI events that transform lineal energy into information take place in both membranes. This is the case, and we call the two cyclical vortices of information of the electromagnetic, light space and gravitational, dark space (since we are electronic beings that do not perceive gravitation), electronic charges and quark masses.

And since electronic charges are guided by electroweak forces and quark masses by strong forces, we conclude that the duality of energy/information and light/gravitational membranes can explain perfectly why there are 4 forces in the Universe. Those forces are in fact 2 lineal energies and 2 curved motions of the 2 scales of reality. Let us consider all those propositions in more detail.

According to Einstein’s principle of equivalence, gravitation curves the energy of vacuum into an accelerated vortex of mass.

Thus, a mass has a cyclical form and since the only cyclical acceleration known is nature is that of a vortex, it follows that a mass is an accelerated, cyclical vortex of gravitational forces in which the energy of gravitational space is curved into mass. We perceive masses as still cyclical forms, because of the Galilean Paradox, but particles are cyclical accelerated vortices, whirl like hurricanes of curved space-time that attract faster as we come closer to their centers. In Relativity Einstein established the equality between accelerated motion, mass and gravitation. Or in the classic notation of Newton: Forces = O_{i}-Masses x |_{e}-Accelerations. And so we exist in a Universe made of ‘motions in time’, ‘actions’, ‘forces’, either cyclical masses or lineal fields.

Physicists think particles are material substances with forms in space (naïve realism), even if they are vortices of space-time, which attract other particles and forces as hurricanes do, dragging them towards its center. There are in fact 2 final ‘seemingly, static’ realities, space and mass, which in closer view are two types of motions: lineal, expansive motion or ‘vacuum space’ and cyclical, informative motion or ‘mass’.

We shall bring a mathematical proof of its equivalence with information, extracted from Einstein’s equations:

*E=mc ^{2} + E x T=k ->Mc^{2} = k/T ->M= (k/c^{2})x (1/T)->M=Kx v*

Where v is the frequency of information of a mass vortex of space-time. Thus when the lineal energy of vacuum space, E, ‘coils up’ acquiring a new dimension of form (c^{2}), it becomes a cyclical vortex of mass, m, which has more form (2 dimensions); hence it stores far more information (i^{2}) than lineal, spatial forces do. That energy/motion of vacuum space, in fact, constantly condensates into virtual particles with form (E->I), either photons or masses, proving that the ultimate substance of reality is light-space condensed into photons and electrons, and gravitational space, condensed into masses.

Thus the 2 ultimate physical realities – ‘forces’ and ‘masses’ – are also two types of motions.

Quantum Physicists, unaware of the full meaning of Relativity and Mass as a vortex that creates information in Einstein’s equations, think that creation of entropy/lineal motion/space is more important than processes of creation of cyclical information/mass. Thus, the Universe should expand and die, and loose its form, its in/form/ation. But this is by no means empirically certain, nor philosophically correct.

Indeed, when we consider the entire picture, which should include the arrow of gravitation and mass, as a force that ‘in/forms’, there are many discontinuous regions of creation of information in the Universe that this simplistic vision of some physicists do not account for in their calculations (black holes, dark matter, masses, charges, vortices, living beings, etc.)

Creation of entropy and its negation, negantropy, the creation of information, balance together, giving us a sum of eternal time: E/I=K. But to fully understand this, quantum physicists must improve their concept of charges and masses as cyclical motions – vortices of physical information that we must add up to the energetic big-bang processes to balance the Universe.

So we consider the initial, simplest reality, vacuum space, the lineal motion of gravitational and electromagnetic forces, which in a first stage curl into formal, cyclical masses and charges. Since vacuum space, which seem static to us has also motion.

This is proved by the dimensions of the substance that makes up our space-time – light – which are the same dimensions than the Cartesian space-time, but gifted with motion: the magnetic, energetic field has 2 perpendicular dimensions, width, and length, and the informative, electric field has also two dimensions: height and rhythm. Both together ‘form’ the 4-Dimensional space-time in which we’ see’. Science further simplified this limited perception into a single abstract continuum ‘frame of reference’ that physicists called Cartesian space-time. When Descartes first published this ‘frame of reference’ in his book ‘The World’ he was aware that it was merely a mathematical instrument of calculus, but as time went by and scientists became accustomed to use the continuous paper-frame for all their studies of time and space, they ended up confusing the ‘language’ – the Cartesian frame – with reality (the space-time created by the explosive expansion of light-space).

Yet the Cartesian->Newtonian single, still, space-time is a simplification of what Leibniz called relational space-time^{9}: reality is made of multiple, lineal and cyclical motions (energy surfaces and cyclical clocks of information) that create all type of entities, which last a certain number of time cycles and occupy a reduced quantity of vital energy=space. Ultimately, Descartes was accurate in his description of reality as made of ‘res extensa’ (lineal space) and ‘vortices’ of time (cyclical motions), which the ‘mind’ used to construct an abstract map of space-time, the Cartesian plane. His disciples however got rid of those perceptive details sponsoring a naïve realism that confused the ‘visual plane’ of the Cartesian mind with the totality of space-times of the Universe. Absolute, Cartesian space-time however is a simplified Maya of the senses, which fix and put together all the bites and bytes of lineal energy and cyclical information, the 2 motions that define reality, into a single space-time.

For the same reasons, we perceive ‘space’ as a still picture of a time motion, a slice of a time-line (or world-line, as Relativistic theorists call it). The mind doesn’t see time from past to future. It perceives only ‘present time’, a simultaneous slice of it that gathers the flows of reality into a static ‘second’, the rhythm of our mind, an eye-wor(l)d, which makes us to perceive many realities in perpetual motions as a single tapestry of static forms; which we call absolute space-time, even if it is made of many relative vital spaces, tracing clock-like cycles. The perception of time flowing thus require to put together many of those still perceptions into a flow of motion. In the same manner, we can see a movie because 24 times per second the image changes and our perception, which takes place more or less every second, puts together those 24 frames into a single ‘formal motion, form-in-action, in-form-ation.

The Einsteinian principle of Equivalence unifies the forces of the Universe and explains the meaning of mass, *not from the perspective of quantum physics, as Higgs or Hawking tried to do with little success, but departing from the Laws of Relativity*.

Physics studies translation time=change in the movement of any entity, either a constant speed or an *acceleration*. So does* Relativity through* the Equivalence Principle, which considers weight equivalent to acceleration. Since a being that accelerates acquires weight. For example, when you accelerate in a rocket or a car, you feel a weight-force that throws you back. Thus, the *Equivalence Principle* equals gravity, acceleration and mass. We feel mass or weight because we are accelerating. While the inverse transformation of a vortex of mass into lineal radiation is ruled by Einstein’s equation, E=Mc^{2}. But General Relativity uses only lineal Time. Thus, if we ad cyclical time, and hence cyclical acceleration, we complete Relativity’s ‘*Lineal**Equivalence Principle’, *with a *Principle of cyclical Equivalence* that states the homology between mass and cyclical acceleration:

* Weight=Gravitational force=Lineal acceleration*

* Mass=Gravitational particle=Cyclical acceleration*

Thus, according to the formal duality of movements in the Universe, there are 2 Principles of Equivalence: lineal acceleration equivalent to gravitational forces and cyclical acceleration, equivalent to Mass, defined as a vortex of super-fluid space-time. Masses are merely the final accelerating curvature of space-time that creates vortices, which attract us, as hurricanes or sink vortices do with their surroundings. A mass is a cyclical vortex of space-time – not a fixed particle, but a cyclical spin. Thus, we describe the physical Universe as a game with 2 limits, the cyclical speed of a mass and the lineal speed of light. Yet to fully grasp that simple, amazingly beautiful, eternal Universe of fractal, moving lineal forces of space and cyclical vortices of mass, we have once more to correct the errors of lineal time that have fogged for centuries our understanding of a mass vortex.

Philosophically the Principle of Equivalence implies that the Universe is not made of solid substances but of perpetual accelerated movements, which we see as static fields within the mind, due to the Galilean paradox. Thus, the Universe is a machine in perpetual change, where acceleration – a change in the direction or rate of any movement – is the natural, dynamic essence of existence in time from past to future and future to past’.

While inertial movements define existence in space, as a present, unchanged reality. Thus the image of the Universe cast by Relativity, when we properly understand the Equivalence Principle, is the opposite of earlier Newtonian concepts that considered the Universe a static, inertial reality instead of a catastrophic, accelerating and decelerating series of worlds, made of changes in the rhythms of times, instead of substances.

We have recently discovered such accelerating Universe defined by the Principle of Equivalence: on one hand, cosmologists discovered that black holes are indeed vortices of space-time that accelerate any object which comes towards them till reaching an angular c-speed on its ‘event horizon’.

On the other hand, we have observed that space accelerates between galaxies becoming dark energy. So both limits of lineal and cyclical movement obey the Principle of Equivalence: reality is, in terms of movement, the inverse of what the static mind perceives. The mind is pure, static, informative space, because it has reduced the cyclical and lineal, inertial movements of the Universe, into quiet mental space.

And further on, it has simplified the constant changes of speeds that the accelerations and decelerations of existence produce, into a lineal movement. The mind integrates those changes of movement into a simplified vision that becomes first an inertial movement and then ‘fixes’ into space, the ultimate nature of the living Universe.

The Universe is constantly accelerating and decelerating, living and dying. In mathematical, linguistic terms, (since mathematics is nothing but a simplifying language of the mind), the first ‘integration’ of that acceleration is movement, (as we integrate all accelerations and decelerations into smooth, constant speed) and its second integration is static space (as we cancel all inverse movements into a fixed image).

Only then when we perform those 2 integrations of data, the complex movements of the fractal Universe become the continuous static space-time of the mind. And inversely, when we want to get detailed information of the movement taken place in a point of that seemingly static space, (from the perspective of the mind), we ‘derivate’ that point of static space, to obtain its rhythm of change, V=s/t, is speed and then again, we ‘derivate’ in more detail to obtain acceleration the ultimate, ‘deeper’ nature of that static space.

It is for all those reasons that we call the arrow of information in the Universe, ‘the arrow of Einstein’, since Einstein defined ‘gravitation’ as an accelerated vortex that bends space into mass, whose frequency carries the information of the universe, its ‘form’. And the result is a Universe in perpetual motion:

*F=M x A, where Mass is cyclical motion and a, lineal motion.*

Which is eternal (MA), and dual, where mass carries the information of the Universe and energy its spatial extension:

*M(t) + A(e)*

*Recap*. the change of paradigm from single lineal time and continuous space into multiple, cyclical Time Arrows and fractal spaces creates a more accurate model of a Universe in perpetual motion, made of lineal energies (gravitation and light) and cyclical vortices of information (masses and charges). We don’t need magic Higgs particles to explain mass, once we follow in the steps of Einstein and complete the curvature of space-time into cyclical vortices of mass.

*How Mass as information explains the duality of the Universe .*

*Classic Physics ignores how ‘the future’ is created by the 2 Simplex ‘arrows’ of time, energy and information. Since it works with a single’ paint’/arrow of time, energy. We contend that the ‘Arrow of mass’ or arrow of information, the arrow discovered by Einstein in his studies of masses as cyclical clocks of time is needed to balance the Universe of energy and make it immortal. Monist Physicists contend that the creation of information is not enough and does not balance the expansion of the Universe. The essential difference between both theories lays therefore in the meaning of mass. We contend that masses are vortices of space-time described by Mr. Einstein Principle of equivalence between mass and acceleration and his equations, ExT=K and E=Mc ^{2}. Hence Mass= k/T= k v, where v is the frequency of rotation of the vortex of gravitational and electromagnetic forces that become masses and charges with more dimensions, as they coil the lineal energy of light, E=Mc^{2}.*

Yet the dominance of the arrow of spatial energy and motion in the last centuries, due to the inordinate attention given to the science of physics and its ‘worldly’ profession of making energetic weapons and transport machines (that arrow in fact was found in the study of heat in steam machines), has modeled the universe as a simple machine of motions and extensions, a ‘continuous’ space that holds matter, its simplest forms, which seems to physicists the meaning of it all.

Quantum physicists even deny Einstein’s theory of mass and prefer to think on mass as an external property to the particle. Hawking, even changes the arrow of time, so masses instead of creating information evaporate into energy. This denial of information goes to the extreme that physicists call the arrow of information, the arrow of ‘future time’ that creates life and mass, negantropy. And so they are in a quest to prove that the immortal Universe will die by an excess of entropy and lack of information.

How they justify it? Because they say the space between galaxies expands and will expand eternally, relaxing all information into pure energy. And since they think space is ‘continuous’, they consider its death proved. But in a fractal, discontinuous Universe such expansion is balanced by the ‘implosion’ of the energy of vacuum space into mass, M=E/c^{2}, *which happens constantly in galaxies and black holes. Thus the expanding vacuum space of the Universe is eternally balanced by the implosive forces of mass and gravitation.*

But we can already see a pattern of physicists: to deny often the existence of an arrow of information and life in any field of their study, including the obvious arrow of information in masses and black holes. All must be entropy, energy and the arrow of death, even *if there is a massive evidence of the existence of an arrow of gravitational form, described by Einstein.*

In words of Nietzsche physicists only care about finding the ‘whitest’ of all canvas, the big-bang of energy, the expansion of vacuum space, while complex theorists work with the 2 main colors of reality, energy and form, and its 2 complex ‘mixtures’, reproduction of form (exi), and social evolution of similar forms into networks, societies, systems and fractal spaces.

So system scientists are working to understand how with those 3+∆ colors, energy, form, its reproduction and its social evolution into a whole (∆+1) the painter, ‘God’, which is the will of those 4 arrows that create the future, its events and scientific laws, paint each part, each being of reality.

*Recap*: Form, information is the inverse, creative arrow that produces forms, by breaking and warping the amorphous energy of space, in ever more complex cyclical particles, which gather into networks and denser, implosive forms. Those ‘forms’ are small, slow, multi-dimensional, living forms that multiply in ever diminishing, more complex fractal scales. Yet in terms of the information they hold they are as important as the Universe itself. Indeed biologists have stored the same quantity of data about life than physicists about all the matter of the Universe.

**Other elements of the Unification equation of charges and masses.**

We affirmed that the Universe is invariant to scale transformations and the 2^{nd} set of laws needed to describe it are those who relate 2 different membranes of space-time, which in astrophysics are the light-space and gravitational-space membrane, the microcosms and the macrocosms.

The Universe is invariant in its topological shapes of energy and information, structured in 2 discontinuous fractal scales of space-time, the scale of cosmological masses and quantum charges, each one made of informative cycles, clocks of time (masses and charges) and lineal, energetic forces (dark, gravitational Non-Euclidean energy and electromagnetic, Euclidean light space).

And so the forces of the Universe must be understood in those terms and in 2 membranes:

*Electromagnetism (spatial force: light) X Weak force (temporal particle: electron)= Electro-weak space-time membrane.*

*Gravitation (spatial force) X Strong force (temporal particle: quark)= Strong, Gravitational space-time Membrane.*

In the Physical Universe time=change shows in the accelerations and decelerations of all its particles and forces. Yet since time and space are inverse morphologies, those motions can be lineal, creating spatial forces or cyclical, creating particles that are temporal vortices. The different cyclical, temporal speeds of those vortices and the spatial extensions of its forces are measured by Universal constants, which are ratios of transformation of spatial energy into temporal information and vice versa (so we measure constants as ratios between a mass/charge of in-form-ative volume and a spatial distance). Thus, a unification of electromagnetic and gravitational fields follows

if we consider that their only difference is the density of space and temporal information of its forces and vortices that give birth to different constants/ratios.

Thus each Universal Constant is an informative/energetic, mass/distance, i/e ratio that defines a certain space-time membrane and plot them all according to those constants as different space-times of growing i/e density (so denser mass vortices have higher information and lesser distance, forming a denser, *strong* space-time of gluons, while the lighter, more extended space-time of larger distances is that of gravitational forces).

The result of plotting ‘forces’ as spaces of different density is a function, we shall call the Universal Constant of space-times, U(t/s), that varies in potencies of 10, giving us the specific i/e densities of each type of space-time force.

Physical Reality is made of dual energetic/informative states (complementarity principle particle-wave): Cyclic vortices/ particles develop lineal actions-waves in 2 scales, the microscopic quantum world of Electromagnetism and the macroscopic, gravitational world.

Once the duality of scales and forms is understood, we unify the constants of dimensional proportionality of both types of vortices and forces, studying transversal waves of ‘lineal speed’ in both scales of the fractal universe: the c-speed of small electromagnetic waves, and we contend, the superluminal ‘action at distance’ of gravitational waves.

Let us consider the first element of that duality, unifying masses and charges of gravitation and electromagnetism as vortices of 2 different scales of space-times. Masses and charges are vortices of 2 space-time scales made of 2 relative energetic and informative motions, where gravitation is faster/more extended but carries less information than the slower/less extended world of light and electroweak particles.

The main variation of those vortices of accelerated forces is the one we observe between electronic charges and quark masses, which are the cyclical vortices of those 2 scales of reality, the scale of cosmological vortices of mass and the scale of electroweak vortices of charges.

And so we have to unify those 2 types of cyclical geometries on one side and their lineal, light and gravitational forces, on the other side, as they switch acting either as sinks of space-time (cyclical, non-lineal vortices of increasing acceleration) or as lineal, gravitational or electromagnetic waves in both scales.

Yet since electromagnetism and gravitation are self-similar accelerated vortices of 2 different fractal branes of space-time, the microscopic and cosmologic branes, it follows we should be able to treat them with the same equations of gravitation, either Einstein’s more detailed vortices, defined by the Principle of Equivalence between mass and acceleration or with the classic analysis of Newton, as accelerated vortices with the same geometrical form, whose relative proportion of energy/speed/ distance and information/curvature will be given by 2 different Universal G-Constants.

Thus, we should be able to describe both, the standard Earth-Sun gravitational vortex and Hydrogen, electron-Proton quantum vortex with the same equations, defining them according to the mass of the particles, the rotational speed and 2 different Universal constants, U.C.(i/e):

U(g), the Universal Constant of gravitation that defines a larger/ faster/less curved Gravitational membrane of masses and…

U(q) the Universal constant of charge (Coulomb) that defines a smaller, slower, more curved membrane of quantum light. Since electromagnetism has more information and less energy distance.

Further on, we will be able to prove empirically our hypothesis of 2 self-similar spatial membranes made of light and gravitational quanta, whose only difference is the i/e relative density of information/energy of its cyclical vortices, if the values of the two Universal constants, in those 2 systems (the earth-sun system and the proton-electron system), correspond to their relative empirical value, when we treat them both as mass vortices (being the gravitational constant 10^{39} times weaker than the charge constant).

Let us then go on with the treatment of charges and masses as Newtonian vortices of space-time. In newton’s equations a mass can be considered a cyclic, accelerated vortex of gravitational space-time defined in classic Newton Mechanics by a centripetal, gravitational acceleration: *ω*^{2}*r*.

The same treatment can be done with Poison equations or Relativity equations, which are a static, present, simultaneous picture of Newton’s space-time vortex of acceleration, where G expresses the informative curvature of the space.

Thus if gravitational acceleration is *ω*^{2}*r*, then *F=mg=m**ω*^{2}*r= GmM/r ^{2}*, and we arrive at

*G=*

*ω*

^{2}*r*. Where

^{3}/M*r*is in meters and

*ω*is angular acceleration in radians per second.

If we substitute for the Earth-Sun system’s rounded values, (the Earth’s angular velocity, *ω* is 2 x 10^{-7} radians per second; its orbital radius is 149 x 10^{9} meters and M, the Sun’s mass is 2 x 10^{30} kg.), we obtain, a value for G that measures the Sun’s Space-time contraction (in static space) or formal acceleration of the vortex, equal to 6.6 x 10^{-11} kg^{-1} m^{3 }rad. sec.^{-2}, in accordance with experimental evidence. Roughly the same value of G, till now calculated empirically, is obtained for all planetary orbits.

This shows that the entire solar system is a series of self-similar gravitational vortices of space-time caused by planetary masses.

Then if we apply the model for G to the hydrogen, proton-electron atom the orbital parameters are: *electron’s angular speed=4.13×10 ^{16} rad.sec.^{-1}; Bohr radius=5.3×10^{-11} meters and*

*Proton mass=1.6 x 10*. And so substituting those values in

^{-27 }kg*U(q) =*

*ω*

^{2}*r*1.5 x 10

^{3}/M, where U(q) is the Universal constant, quantized for the electromagnetic scale as ‘q’, we obtain a value of ±^{29}

*kg*

^{-1}m^{3 }rad. sec.^{-2}.Thus, if we treat charges as vortices of a denser space-time membrane, we obtain theoretically a U.C. (i/e) of around 1.5 x 10^{39} times the value of the gravitational *G, U(g)*, self-similar to the empirical value.

Yet a theoretical calculus of those values cannot be exact ‘by chance’, unless our thesis is right. Thus, the previous calculus is a clear proof that both, charges and masses, are unified as values of the same type of space-time vortices in the 2 different scales of space-time of the Universe. And they are geometrically unified from the p.o.v. of geometrical relativity not from quantum theory, as Einstein wanted it^{2}. Thus, the Unification equation in terms of Newtonian mechanics is simple:

*Unification Equation: *

*UC _{G,C} = *

*ω*

^{2}*r*

^{3}/M*UC*=

_{G,C}x M*ω*

^{2}*r*

^{3}M=*ω*

^{2}*r*

^{3}/UC_{G,C}Where we obtain for 2 UC(i/e) values, G and Q, 2 different space/time scales and vortices acceleration (mass and charges).

2 obvious, simple proofs of that dual, scalar structure:

– Planck’s minimal value for Mass is far bigger (10^{-7} g.) than the minimal value for an electromagnetic action (h), which seems to mean that the mass scale is far bigger than the quantum world.

– The entire standard model works without gravitational forces. Thus we have to postulate that particles are not ‘mass-particles’ but electromagnetic systems, which become elements of mass only when they aggregate in huge numbers, as it happens with electromagnetic photons, which become electrons of the upper scale in huge nebulae.

But we see masses as static forms. This is due to the Galilean paradox: a space-time vortex-mass becomes then statically a space-time distortion, a deformation of space-time which increases as we decrease size. Since the *deformation of space-time is the same for any cycle. Hence, when we trace a smaller cycle the deformation increases.* And so it does the mass and the U(w), now a static constant of deformation. This is the interpretation most often assumed of G in Einstein’s Relativity. In a simpler, classic approximation based in fluid dynamics, M/r^{3 }becomes the density of space/time and its inverse, R^{3}/m, the displacement of space-time provoked by a given mass. It is then evident by Archimedes Principle that a bigger mass density will provoke a bigger displacement and distortion of space-time an inversely a bigger acceleration towards the central vortex. And since the density of a proton is much higher than the density of a planet, the Universal Constant for an atom is much higher and so it is its angular speed. Does the electromagnetic constant, or static curvature of an atomic system, is much stronger. So it is the density of a proton mass.

This reformulation of electromagnetism simplifies and clarifies the meaning of physics. Yet to grasp the relationships between the quantum world and the cosmos we have to transform, using the new coulomb constant, C=1.5×10^{29}, electromagnetic parameters to the jargon of gravity, departing from its fundamental relationship:

*F=UC _{C} Mm/r^{2} = e^{2}/4pe_{o}r^{2}*

Then we can translate the main constants of electromagnetism (the Rydberg constant, the α constant, which denotes the strength of the electromagnetic field, etc.) to the gravitational jargon and again the results obtained are close to the theoretical value.

So it is evident that we are observing the same geometric force at different scales, *explained with 2 different historic jargons*. Further on, as we ‘transform’ the concepts of electromagnetic vortices to gravitational, geometric symbols, the main discoveries of Relativity apply to electromagnetic vortices.

Now it must be stressed and we shall consider it in the next paragraph, that in a Universe with ∞ linguistic world perspectives *‘truth only exists in the being in itself’, which carries all the information about it (epistemological value 1), as Haldane already noticed about the Universe. So all mathematical descriptions of different slightly changed linguistic mirrors show similar images. *

**Mass, Charge and Temperature in Planck’s units**

In the case of the unification of scales as time vortices of accelerated time speed, we have shown the simplest one. I have in my archives of 30 years of personal research similar works using 5 other formalisms, Poisson, Lagrange, Einstein, Heaviside and one which might seem trivial, but is so simple we shall bring it also in this introduction: Planck’s numbers. As in both, we obtain the value of Mass and Charge directly from the fundamental constants of the Universe:

Planck Mass: Mp: √~~h~~c/G

Electric charge Qp: √~~h~~c/ke

It is a beautiful equation because of its simplicity and profundity.

Now the fundamental equation of the Universe is Tƒ x Sp = ∆ and here we can reduce indeed the 4 fundamental constants of the Universe, c, h, G and Eo to that equation:

Sp (c) x Tiƒ (h) / ∆+1 G = ∆+1 Mass

Sp (c ) x tiƒ (h) /∆-1 Eo= ∆-1 Charge

Since speed-motion of light is the unit of spatial motion in the Universe, and h-planck of Form, of time cycles and bits of information, reason why it is a quantised formula.

Thus those two vortices of time, Masses and charges, are the product of the quanta of space and motion and the quanta of time and information of our Universe below and above us, which also means that G and Eo, are the two different curvatures.

it is interesting to see that the minimal charge unit makes 11 electrons roughly which we can take as the natural decametric unit of a charge with an organic motion as a flow of charge. Mass though is much larger as it corresponds to a larger scale of the 5th dimension.

The relationship between ∆+1/∆-1 constants, G/Eo is therefore another constant deduced from those to fully grasp how closely related those vortices are.

Many other constants like ∆µ and the fine structure constant are immediately understood as they can be deduced from those ones.

Thus we are in a world with two limits one of speed-motion and one minimal quanta of information, ~~h~~* and those are the 2 elements the Universe uses to evolve its beings.*

What this means will be clear when we explore with more depth the ‘perceptive actions’ of those time vortices, of which our minds are doing with the pan geometry of Lobachevski in the 5th and most important isomorphism. In essence, h is our constant of perception as electronic beings and c, the volume-speed an electronic/gravitational mind can reach; being therefore G/ke, the ratio the system *absorbs the energy-information of the Universe in its purest scale of space-time.*

Now we shall latter consider the meaning of the Planck units which are far more objective than human units, where c is the speed of space, instead of length, h the quantum of information and time (angular momentum) better than lineal time duration and G and K the relative metric of the 5th dimensional scales, to which we must add the Boltzmann constant for the Thermodynamic states, and construct with them, an objective analysis of physical 5D. Enough said now to introduce the main time clocks of the 5D Universe.

Perhaps the most interesting simplified value under the new U(q) charge constant is the Proton radius that appears with the same formula, than a black hole, Schwarzschild horizon. This means that a quark particle (a hadron, a proton, etc.) is basically a black hole of the quantum, gravitational scale and vice versa: a cosmological black hole might be a deconfined state of billions of ultra-dense quarks. In such fractal Universe, each small particle could from the perspective of a small observer a macrocosmic form. And each atom could be a galaxy. Such fractal Universe validates the Theory of Great Numbers, which are the parameters of self-repetition of the Universe, which might be from a lower perspective a mere atom or black hole of a hyper-Universe.

** ***In the graph, the co-invariance of the 5th dimension between size in space and time-speed such us: Sp x Tƒ = ∆±∞, that is the faster clocks of time run the smaller the entity is, allows to unify the scale of charges and masses at the atomic and galactic scale. The Unification of forces thus is a cyclical equation o the 5th dimension, latter studied in detail, not a lineal equation of temperatures.*

Yet self-similarity is not equality, an atom is self-similar to a galaxy but NOT likely a galaxy – reason why for example quantum cosmology is false. Quantum cosmologists consider ‘identical’ the scales of the cosmos and the quantum world, so they use quantum equations for all. This is a hyperbolic error. We have equations for each scale and what we can show, as we did here, is the self-similarities of scales.

All in all, it is evident that what we call a black hole or pulsar is made of quark quanta; it is a fractal of quarks. Thus we can apply to its vortices the laws of Newtonian fluids or the more complex equations of a Non-Euclidean vortices of space-time, as we do with any other ‘medium’ called a ‘phase space’ in physics. They can be considered akin to a hurricane, which is a ‘medium’ of air molecules, or to a tornado, which is a medium of water molecules. All those mediums have limits of speed, which are the same for their lineal forces and cyclical vortices:

Light space-time has a c-speed limit, which is also the limit of speed of a rotational electron vortex and a 0 K limit.

Dark energy and quark matter belonging to the gravitational membrane seems to have a c<10 c lineal and rotational speeds.

Because each space-time membrane has vortices of information and energetic, lineal forces, we need equations of self-similarity, relating informative vortices of charges and masses on one side and gravitational and electromagnetic waves on the other. This is done with gravito-magnetism, which relates cosmic gravitational, lineal waves and electro-magnetic fields. So, the gravito-magnetic formalism just needs to be properly fit within the wider concept of 2 self-similar fractal space-times, to define in self-similar terms, light waves and dark-energy waves of gravitation; as the elementary, actions-units of the 2 fractal scales. Because of the corrections, higher complexity and general ignorance of the gravito-magnetic formalism, here we shall only consider the case of the light-membrane.

*Recap*: the 2^{nd} fundamental duality of the Universe is its structure in 2 different branes, planes or scales of space-time: the electromagnetic space and the gravitational space, which show different proportions of energy and information and yet, because of the self-similarity of all those branes can be easily unified as 2 self-similar forces acting in 2 different scales.

**Einstein’s Equivalence: Bidimensional mass. Dimensions of gravitational space-time.**

In the graph the 4 obvious descriptions of mathematical physics regarding gravitation: iƒ (relativity)≈ Ti (newton) <-> Se (Poisson)≈ Sp (Lagrange):

iƒ -relativity is a still formal, *informative,* description in ‘present’ of the gravitational space-time)

Ti- Newton is a moving vortex of Time, less detailed and more dynamic.

Se-Poisson is a potential static field of entropic motions, with a gradient-direction.

Sp- Hamiltonian-Lagrangian is a dynamic description of the conservative energy of the system.

“I want to know God’s thoughts . . . the rest are details.”, said Einstein. Yet those thoughts are logic principles, the details are mathematical equations, which evolve with new developments in calculus, while the principles stay.

In that sense, it is a common mistake of Pythagorean physicists who believe God speaks only mathematics to consider that Einstein’s work on general relativity is unrelated to Newton because he uses different mathematics. Thus, Pythagorean physicists, who consider mathematics the only language of reality, think that Einstein explains a completely different view of the Universe, which invalidates totally Newton’s work. This view is wrong and leaves unexplained the very obvious fact that Newton’s description of gravitational forces works so well that it was considered an absolute truth till the twentieth century and is still used for most calculus of forces on Earth *because both are based on the same logic principle of equivalence, which in the hierarchy of science dominates over the different detailed mathematical descriptions of it. *

Moreover, it is known to the historian of physics that Newton’s equations were evolved by Poisson and Poisson was the departing point of Einstein, which is the departing point of fractal relativity, the twenty-first-century version sketched in this book. Yet the principle of equivalence between accelerations and masses is *not the departing point of Higgs and Hawking’s entropic black holes, which deny Einstein’s principles, and so regardless of their mathematical complexity, they are wrong because their logic principles are false*.

So we must consider a different view on the evolution of gravitational theory. Newton, Poisson, and Einstein’s theories are right because they describe the same *logic principle of equivalence*, with the best mathematical models available to each age. And since logic is in the hierarchy of the scientific method, superior to mathematics, from where it derives—as Gödel, Russell, and Frege proved, deducing the laws of mathematics from those of logic—what matters is to understand the logic principles of the Universe, which will then be described “in higher detail” with each new paradigm of mathematics. What this means is that as mathematics have grown in detail and precision, new physicists have applied the new mathematics and increased the detail of their calculus.

Yet the physical principles, events, and concepts that truly define the phenomenon physicists describe have not changed. So when those principles are changed by false principles as Higgs and Hawking do in mass and black hole theory, the results are false regardless of the mathematical detail they use to reinvent the Universe.

This is clearly shown in theory of mass by the three phases of evolution of the principle of equivalence between mass and acceleration, all of which can be used to calculate trajectories of masses, because all of them follow the three legs of the scientific method. The first paradigm was Newton’s paradigm, which used a simple formula of a gravitational vortex to describe them. And they worked fine for most calculus and they are still used. Then Poisson, Lagrange, and Hamilton refined those calculi. And finally Einstein used Poisson formulation of the gravitational force and took it a step further with the use of non-Euclidean maths.

What we have done is to take Einstein’s work further by using the next age of evolution of mathematics, fractal and non-Euclidean mathematics and the laws of endophysics, which includes the limits of human perception on those equations (Galilean paradox, changes in the speed of time around black holes), which solve the problem of the uncertainty of measure introduced by the observer.

But any of those three-plus-one ages of the principle of equivalence between mass and acceleration are good enough to explain what mass is; and none of the quantum alternatives, despite the complexity of its maths, is truth because they deny the principle of equivalence between mass and acceleration, considering mass an external property given by solid particles (the Higgs) that transfer it magically to all other entities of the Universe, not an internal property of the topological structure of space-time, its accelerated, cyclical motion.

Any of those models—Newton’s forces, Einstein’s relativity, or our non-Euclidean fractal description of the two membranes of the Universe—bring enough understanding of what a mass is. Yet because Pythagorean physicists ignore the underlying logic principles that rule their equations, they believe in the mathematical model of the day and when new mathematics appears, they think the old model was totally wrong. So they thought, as Alexander Pope put it, that “God created Newton and there was light,” but when Einstein came with new maths, they threw Newton’s work as if it were a fantasy when it had worked perfectly for three centuries in calculating all kinds of motions in the Universe. Newton had embedded the same true principles in his work—the principle of equivalence between accelerations and forces, masses and motions (F=m × a).

Next, Poisson and Hamilton applied the new refined tools of differential calculus to the study of the motion of planets, which was previously described by Newton with simpler operandi. So they found out another key principle of the Universe of energy and information—the law of minimal energy, which states that any system of the Universe tries to keep its internal energy and information, follows the path that saves more energy between two points.

Then when Riemann developed non-Euclidean mathematics, Einstein applied them to the previous work of Newton, using the notation of Poisson, to find a more precise analysis of gravitational mass vortices, by making a series of “simultaneous,” present pictures of those cyclical motions and adding the influence of the gravitational membrane that underlies our world of light and electroweak masses.

We could resume the differences between the classic formulation of Newton and the modern one, considering that Newton formulated the description of the whole, and its dynamics in an extended space and time duration, while Einstein formulated the detailed topology of the vortex in each non-Euclidean point of its space and in the simultaneity of each present moment of duration.

The description of those vortices in the scale of charges and quarks can be also done with two degrees of detail, as we do here, considering them whole vortices or as the so-called QCD theory of strong forces does, in detail, considering each fractal quanta (gluon and quark) at each moment of time and aggregating them together. Yet while the whole description of quarks we shall do here is less accurate than the detailed one, brought about by quantum chromodynamics, it provides a more logical, comprehensive overview, which is the aim of this book, since all those mathematical descriptions are truth as long as they describe accurately the equivalence principle between forces and accelerations. If we compare them with a verbal description, we could say that all of them have the same core sentence, the principle of equivalence, but the description of it grows in detail. If Newton, for example, said Jesus had dark hair, Einstein refined the analysis and said Jesus had dark hair with brown touches in his forehead, and fractal relativity refines the sentence further, saying Jesus had long dark hair with brown touches on his forehead and a white stripe on his temples. But the essential concept remains: Jesus had dark hair, that is,

*All the past forces-fields of entropy energy and future particles-clocks of the Universe are accelerated motions balanced in present inertial waves.*

This principle, so stated, is what physicists dropped with a single arrow of entropy; and due to the excessive specialization of their mathematical models of enormous detail the general vision of the forest of all physical events, the equivalence principle is lost. For that reason, I have always preferred the opposite approach: to study first the forest, the principles of physics, with a limited mathematical precision, achieved by not using computers in my calculations and accepting as supreme guides the laws of the scientific method (Objectivity->Symmetric Minimalism; Linguistic Correspondence; Cyclical Experimental evidence: Œ=Mc^{2}) and the well-established principles in which previous theories were founded. And only at the end, once the forest is mapped, I have considered some of its specific trees in more detail.

It is thus the comprehension of the principles of equivalence between the forces of the Universe and the two types of accelerations (F=m × a) and its invariance under change of position or scale in the Universe, not the mathematical details that casts further light on the meaning of mass and charges in the Universe.

Let us then summarize so far the meaning of that principle in Newton and Einstein’s work. Newton defined that principle with a simple formula: F= m × a; that is, the forces of the Universe are made of two elements, which we must consider to be both accelerated motions. Yet since we only know two types of accelerated motions, lineal acceleration (*a*) and vortices of cyclical acceleration (V × radius=k), masses should be curved, accelerated vortices of gravitational forces.

This was Einstein’s view. It led him to formulate with Riemannian tensors the four-dimensional space-time structures of gravitation and masses, measuring the structure of space under that principle in a simultaneous moment of time. Thus, he made still pictures in which we can gauge the curvature of the vortex to its finest detail, adding smaller corrections to the whole dynamic Newtonian view.

Thus, Einstein just made a more detailed analysis of Newton’s vortices of mass, turning around the sun, using Riemannian geometries and the concept of simultaneous present time. We could say in a way that he made a more precise picture, a still present photograph of the spatial form of those vortices, but the essential truth, the principle of equivalence between forces and acceleration remains the same from Newton to Einstein to fractal relativity. And so it is that principle and not the evolving mathematics of any of those three models what we have to consider in detail to fully grasp the essence of all the forces of the Universe. What fractal relativity does is to add the advances on theory of information, to go even further, respecting the work of those pioneers and founding fathers.

Now as we advance through different systems of physics we will realize that those 4 views are common to all of them, albeit, some have a better use than others. Of them the most all-encompassing one is the Lagrangian Hamiltonian as it is the vision of the whole time worldview of the entity (described with the peculiar concept of energy≈ time in physics, as it should distinguish ALWAYS potential, informative and kinetic energy momentum, as it does in the detailed analysis of its quanta, the scale angular and lineal momentum. So we shall before going into those studies make an analysis of the meaning of magnitudes and conservation laws to fully graph them in terms of T.Œ.

This of course does not mean the others do not work, but as a general rule, far away perception observes wholes (you do not see the hairs of your friend coming down the road but its head and before that its whole, so the Whole –energy worldview and the head – Tƒ element, in this case Newton and Hamilton – are by far the most widely used. And for that reason we have used the Newtonian easiest perspective that comes first – the head in motion that is talking so to speak – to unify forces. In 4th line we will make copious use of the other 3.

In that regard the power of T.Œ to classify and understand the why of all mathematical physics marvels the ‘rational, non-computerized still human thinker’ (-: As this is not the case of most experts, ts, ts, we are not writing so much for physicists, but about physics and for all humans with a minimal degree of knowledge of physics, to the level of any graduate of natural sciences, which is expected to know the basics of mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and some notions of relativity and quantum theory – this final discipline, made extremely detailed in its content for two reasons:

- Information travels upwards with no entropy so we do have a lot of information about quantum particles, and a lot of things to describe, billions of particles with relative freedom of motion, to explain together with enormous detail because…

- The electronic industry is creating sophisticated organisms of metal, chip-brains, robots, and nuclear weapons, which require precision calculus of the exchanges of energy and information of those particles in bundles of billions. So this is by far the most overgrown of all disciplines of technological science, while far more fundamental sciences for mankind such as history, social economics, human studies and medicine are under developed.

We thus will consider ONLY on this overgrown discipline the basic conceptual elements required to understand particles as all other planes of the Universe, through its organic, mental, topological and causal properties, to show they are NOT special. As in any case it would be a disrespect to the reader, to get into the parlance of modern Latin, as in any case its goals (to unify all forces etc. under wrong dogmas and postulates) is impossible.

**Masses Are Vortices of Physical Information. ****Dimensional Form Becomes Speed: Creation and Destruction in the Organic Universe**

*The Universe creates dimensional form by reducing the motion/speed of a physical system and vice versa: it creates motion/ speed by eliminating dimensions of form. So a 3 dimensional nebulae of matter collapses into an accelerated mass vortex, in which, according to the Equivalence between gravitational forces, masses and cyclical acceleration (Einstein’s relativity), is an attractive whirl of spacetime.*

*The equivalence principle establishes a Universe with two limits of eternal movement: a lineal speed of gravitational and electromagnetic forces and a cyclical speed of masses and charges, which are vortices of space-time. Energetic forces create space, and vortices are clocks of time that carry information, eternally transforming into each other in self-similar events:*

*Σ** spatial forces (lineal movements) ≤=≥Tƒ (cyclical clocks of information).*

*The sums of all those events maintain an eternal dynamic balance of cycles and lines.*

*Yet since lines have one dimension less than a clock cycle, the process can be also perceived as a game of creation and destruction of dimensions of form. In the graph, a three-dimensional slow nebulae accelerates its motion as it becomes a bidimensional vortex of faster, more attractive mass. Such transformation is common both in the cosmological world as stars become black holes and the quantum world in big crunches when electrons become quarks. r.*

The Galilean Paradox is essential to understand the Universe as fixed lines are also ‘—motions’ and bits of information are time clocks. And one can transform into the other: Se x =Tƒ. They do so through the 3 ages of life or energy’s standing points of a Hamiltonian:

Spe<ST<Tƒ= Youth: Max. Se/Tƒ > Maturity: Se x Tƒ (Se=Tƒ) >Old age: Tƒ/Se

But in physical systems they do so through external motions mostly by loosing or acquiring back and forth in space, dimensions of form or dimensions of speed.

There are two concepts that do not appear in classic physics but are essential in understanding how the universe converts energy into information (motion into form): the paradox of Galileo, which allow us to describe those processes as “frozen pictures,” which is the informative point of view, or as changes in the speed or motion of things.

The graph shows the two events combined: when a system acquires forms, it slows down. When a system loses dimensions, it speeds up. Yet to understand this essential process, we must first clarify an error made by physicists who do not use the concept of dimensional form to define “information” but the algebraic “data” concept of a “bit of information.”

Fractal information is related to dimensional form while algebraic information is the simplest dimensional form: bits of broken patterns emitted by waves, which encode those patterns in the distances between the crests or frequency of the wave. But those patterns are the “minimal” pattern of information of the Universe. In that regard, the capacity to store information *of any system follows a power law*:

*Information » X ^{ Fractal dimensions of the system}*

Yet in the same way, physicists have reduced all the arrows of time, previously defined to a single energetic arrow measured by a single “clock-time”; they have reduced all the forms of information to a single broken frequency pattern. Biology, a more sophisticated science of information, today is able to study how molecules and proteins store information in several dimensions; and that previous law can be deduced of biological studies. Yet *physicists have not gone beyond the simplest one-dimensional information of lineal waves. They have not even discovered that mass stores much more information than waves in physical bidimensional vortices.*

In duality, we study both sciences, physics and biology, and we can compare and use laws of both sciences to find self-similar laws in the other discipline. In that sense, Shannon’s standard definition of information is a computer-based definition, of technological science, useful to store information in numbers, with a limited application to the understanding of the universe, *which stores information in four dimensions in very complex patterns and enormous volumes.* Information is in that broader Universe form, in/form/ation. The simplest information is the one-dimensional broken bits of data that divide a line of energy into a pattern. This is what a computer does and what a physicist would understand as information. But in nature, a more precise concept is that of fractalization. Information increases when a continuous flow of energy breaks into patterns and acquires dimensions, bumps and points.

The arrow of information is a transformation of a surface of space, of energy into inner form: a change from lineal, chaotic movement into cyclical, repetitive one; from expansive waves into imploding particles; from disordered, equalized forces of indistinguishable forms extending in space into an ordered hierarchical system of non lineal mass vortices. Its inverse function is the explosion of energy, the dissolution of form, the arrow of *death*.

Though physics recognizes the inverse arrow of entropy as negantropy—that is, the negation of entropy—it is long overdue to name it properly as *form* that crystallizes and organizes chaotic lineal energy into cyclical, repetitive patterns of *in-form-ation*.

Indeed, Mehaute^{10} and other theorists have proved ad nauseam that when a system stops creating energy, entropy, it keeps the arrows of future flowing, creating information, fractal patterns of form*—the future never stops. This also applies to physics in the way form becomes motion and motion becomes form.*

The unification equation relates the different scales/membranes of space-time. Yet for each membrane and particle, we must clarify a final concept, the meaning of dimensions of information and how they disappear, converted into speed and energy or appear as motion and energy slows down, creating form. In the Universe, there are multiple physical species of different fractal non-Euclidean dimensions.

The new mathematics of complex physics means though that a flat plane of two dimensions has a minimal height, as each of its points of the flat network is in itself a world of a smaller scale. Thus, a flat vortex of mass, a bidimensional quark, has smaller gluons and strings, which have smaller dimensions. For that reason, there is equivalence between different mathematical descriptions in different dimensions. A fifth-dimensional description of strings is equivalent to a four-dimensional description of quarks, which is equivalent to a three-dimensional description of an electronic atom, and so on. It is a general law that all systems of physical mass pack energy in fractal dimensions of form:

Strings (one-dimensional dark energy in a 5-D Universe) -> bidimensional quarks and gluons in a 4-D world -> three-dimensional electrons

This translates sometimes into different equations for a physical vortex and different power laws and relationships between masses (the static, formal, dimensional perception of a vortex) and speeds (its perception as pure motion). For example, Vo × Ro = K is a bidimensional vortex, which we used to explain in its simplest terms the equivalence principle.

However, the unification equation of charges and cosmological masses happens in a three-dimensional world. So we used a three-dimensional vortex equation, U.C. × M = w^{2 }× r^{3}, which is the vortex used to unify the three-dimensional worlds of cosmological bodies and electronic matter we perceive.

Finally, in the next chapter, when we compare the two families of quarks, top quark particles and strange quark particles, the relationship between their rotational speed and masses follows a three-dimensional power law (w^{3} = M). So the world of top quark particles turn at 10 c-speed but it has 1,000 times the mass of the world of strange quark particles that turn at a maximum of c-speed, which obviously means that the world of top quarks has one dimension more than the world of strange quarks. This is further proved by the famous Maldacena conjecture, which studies top quark black holes as five-dimensional string systems, self-similar to four-dimensional quark gluon soups.

All these are details of advanced fractal physics, which help to determine the specific masses and speeds of the quark-gluon liquids made at CERN that will swallow the earth.

We are more interested in explaining the concept illustrated in the graph: *how our slower three-dimensional electronic world will accelerate, acquiring energy/speed and losing a fractal dimension of form, when it becomes transformed into a strange quark condensate *since transformations of energy into information take place by warping and unwarping dimensions of form into speed.

A basic case observed in all scales is represented by the previous graph, taken from a *SciAm* article about the formation of galactic disks, which we used to illustrate the creation of a quark by the crunching of electronic nebulae of three dimensions. The slow rotation of the electron becomes a bidimensional faster quark system. The same process gives birth to a black hole in the cosmological realm, when the nebulae of a star or the gas of a galaxy collapses into a black hole.

All this means, of course, that dimensions are “fractal,” limited dimensions, which never extend to infinity but to the limits of a certain entity of the Universe. Thus, the creation of fractal dimensions of information or its transformation into speed is one of the commonest events of the Universe and at the same time one of the many details of the generator equation of space-time:

*Energy = speed **≤=≥**information = fractal dimension*

In the case we study in this post, we can consider a simple dimensional game by which slow three-dimensional electrons become faster bidimensional quark masses. There is a simple proof of the bidimensionality of our up and down quarks: quarks have one-third or two-thirds of the charge/dimensionality of electrons and so we need three quarks with perpendicular orientations called colors to form a three-dimensional quark structure able to interact with our three-dimensional electrons.

Further on, we must add the interaction of two different mediums and forces, the strong gravitational force of quarks and the electroweak force of electrons. This means that quarks “suck in” electrons, trying to absorb them, to feed on them, so they have implosive, strong gravitational forces, while electrons try to suck in quarks with its electromagnetic force, reason why we use a negative, implosive, absorbing direction for electronic charges.

In other words, quarks use its force to attract and steal momentum from electrons, and electrons use its electromagnetic force to attract and absorb momentum for quarks.

Those are the simplest visual concepts, to understand the interactions of those membranes. Obviously when we enter into topological details, the forms, dimensions, and charges of each of those elements become far more complex.

** The Mystery of Slow Clocks.**

What is the mathematical relationship between mass, time, and information? Einstein hinted that cyclical clocks of time, cyclical forms, and cyclical masses were related when he said that “time curves space into mass.” And he showed that relationship in his equations. Now, once the curved form of masses, self-similar to the curved forms clocks of temporal information is understood, we can fully grasp the meaning of that sentence if we use the concept of time that physicists use as “what a clock measures.” Masses are* the cyclical clocks of information of the Universe, which trans/form the energy lines of gravitational forces into a regular frequency of information given by the speed of rotation of those physical clocks.*

Look at the back of a clock. It is a cyclical spiral that unwinds its energy so the clock can create cycles of information. The clock is a “fractal generator” of cycles of information (the hours of the clock) molded from a source of energy (the spiral), following a dual feed-back cycle of transformation of energy into information (the clock turning) and information into energy (the spiral unwinding). This duality of all eternal processes of trans/formation of lineal motions (energies) into cyclical motions (information) and vice versa is the essential dual cycle of the Universe, its “generator equation” (E < =>Tƒ or Se×Tiƒ=K), depending on our dynamic or static perception of it (Galilean paradox). And it applies to all systems.

The space between galaxies expands because the space within galaxies contracts into mass. The big bang of a supernova explodes radiation because quarks become a stronger superfluid vortex inside in a big crunch. Yet if we were physicists, ascribed to the entropy-only religion and naïve realism, we would only see half of the process, either the big bang radiation and expansion of interstellar space (big bang theorists) or the visible mask of the informative clock: the needles turning.

So a mass or a charge is a physical clock of time that winds energy into form but simultaneously unwinds form into energy, expelling it perpendicularly through its poles, as a tornado—which also has a dimension of height, not only a cyclical inward movement—does with water or air. And so we are all made of spatial energy that extends and creates space and movement and cyclical clocks of time, whirls of masses and charges that carry information. And the growth of complexity of those two motions finally create the biological cycles of information and energy that make us humans.

The complex evolution of those two motions, chained in infinite puzzles, evolving in networks, grouping in bigger structures, is what we call the organic Universe made of networks of spatial energy and information.

Now, let us prove the concept of mass as physical information with the three tenets of the scientific method: mathematical, logic, and experimental proof. The logic proof is in the explanations we just made of it. Unlike the Higgs mechanism, masses as vortices of space-time are logic mechanisms of attraction. The experimental proof is the relationship between the speed and radius of each vortex and its attractive power or mass. Unlike the Higgs mechanism that never explained why each mass has the mass it has, the vortex theory explains them: Light doesn’t close a vortex so it doesn’t have mass. Black holes turn faster with lesser radius so they have more mass. Quarks do the same in the particle world so they are the most massive of them all.

Finally, the mathematical proof is as simple and beautiful as it gets. Just substitute in Einstein’s two main formulas where mass and time come out to obtain its relationship:

*Energy =mass × c ^{2} and energy × time =constant*

Then you cancel energy and you get *mass = constants/time= k × frequency of information.*

Since time and frequency are inverse (T=1/v), this means that the faster the frequency of a vortex of space-time is, the more attractive/heavier the mass is; the more information it will store and the slower its inverse (T=1/v), lineal time will happen. And this is another experimental proof of informative masses, as astrophysicists have shown that lineal time passes slower when we come closer to a massive object like a black hole. All this explains why in relativity time is related to mass, which affects the movement of cyclical clocks since

*Mass = frequency of a vortex of physical clocks (any orbit, mass, or charge=spin).*

All those relationships, which can be described also with the more complex topological models of non-Euclidean geometry briefly outlined in the appendix, *cannot be obtained with Higgs particles, which cannot explain rationally how masses attract, what their values are without inventing new laws and fields never found in nature, and yet even then, it cannot explain the different masses of each particle.*

Thus, we conclude that Einstein’s theory of mass is right and the Higgs a fantasy:* masses and quarks are motions that carry the information of the Universe in its bidimensional vortices. *This is not understood by quantum physicists because they try to explain masses with the lineal Higgs, WHICH IS THE External PERSPECTIVE FROM THE LINEAL FIELD THAT GIVES IT ENTROPY in the case only for weak-symmetry breaking interactions that evolve the particle into the hyper force world of internal space-time on black holes and cosmic scales) and fail.

Later, when we talk of quarks in more detail, we shall add some complexity to this basic description of them. It matters one of those properties: a bidimensional vortex* has less dimensions and more speed/attractive power than our three-dimensional electroweak forces. This means we need three quarks, each one with one-third of charge, to emerge into our electronic world. To do so, they form very dense, stable triplets because they “lock themselves” perpendicularly, to emerge as “three-dimensional color-locked” forms in our Universe*.

This working as an introduction, we now have to introduce basic isomorphisms and paradoxical symmetries of T.Œ to set more clearly the theoretical foundations of the previous paragraphs and awesome results on the meaning of relativity, the different geometries of space-time and the unification of charges and masses.

**Errors of space-time symmetries in physics: confusion of time with space.**

The duality particle-future, past-antiparticle duality IS essentially the ‘life-arrow, death-arrow ‘duality of time events and as such is a huge field of new interpretations of all kind of events and particles, which often means to re-interpret a spatial very fast ‘resonance’ particle, into a time event of particle-antiparticle, life-death transition (mesons for example are death events, in which a particle-antiparticle in time dies; annihilations of particles – antiparticles can on the other hand be interpreted as spatial dualities or temporal events).

And this brings us to a fundamental new insight on all fields of sciences, but specially those fields of the lower ∆-∆ scales where clocks of time according to 5 D metrics are much faster, and so often we see as we see fast turning wheels as solid space, fast time events as spatial events. Among them, the most important re:

-Particle-antiparticle death events, seen as mesons or spatial collisions

– Ternary ages of systems, color forces and weak forces seen a spatial gauging interactions.

– And generally any phenomenon that happens in small range in space and slow time, which is a transformative event not a gauging spatial force. And any space-formal, fixed system with no relative motion, which tends to adopt a spherical, gauging-informative state.

There is though besides the straighten up of the errors of physics regarding its space-time symmetries a more general analysis of great beauty, which consists in the translation of the ‘Ages of the Big-bang’, which latter we will study in detail, and ascribe to the most likely scale of Galactic matter, which explains how from the most energetic Higgs-top quark-black hole fields, through the ‘breaking of symmetry’, all other forces and particles are born.

But what means the breaking of symmetry in terms of the Generator equation? It is quite simple, when we understand that ‘Energy field’ as the synonymous of the Spe, entropic simpler past motions of all systems of reality which start a process of social evolution that implies an increasing of order and a diminishing quantity of energy-information available as we grow in scales. The breaking of symmetry means merely the growth of those scales and its eusocial evolution into different new social systems that are efficient and respond to the metrics of the 5^{th} dimension, as they slow down the clocks of time and enlarge the surface of space of the Universe, in new planes of existence, which obey the metrics of the 5^{th} dimension L=Spe x Tƒ.

Yet since the big-bang is the death NOT the birth of the most perfect form of the Universe a hyper-black hole (as its equations are the inverse equations to the metrics of a black hole), we do NOT increase the speed of Tƒ-clocks (as it will happen in the bi crunch), reducing the Spe size of the system, as in an arrow of information, and life Max. Tƒ x Min. Spe = L, but in an inverse fashion each of the epochs of he big-bang and the subsequent differentiation of physical species into forms of larger space and slower time clocks represents precisely the entropic death of the Universe from the form of max. energy, the hyper black hole, likely made of top quarks and Higgs fields.

So first the Higgs field (spatial element), and top-bottom quarks (particle element), decreased its speed of motion, likely to be an inflaton, superluminal c-motion and rotary T-motion (given the enormous mass of the top quark, its clocks of time must be between 10 and 100 times faster than those of our matter), which as it expanded and cool down (temperature is not a proper measure of frequency and order, only for thermodynamic systems, but physicists use it to describe high frequency=high temperature, lineal time clocks), freezing into a series of new planes of the 5^{th} dimension, creating in each plane a new Spe<ExI>Tƒ, type of field quanta, wave-form and dominant particle.

So after the top quark black hole and Higgs field of super-luminal dark energy and information, expanded at superluminal speeds in a fraction of time (Min. Tƒ x Max. Spe) during the Inflaton epoch, the quark gluon soup started the production of slower=lighter Tƒ-articles (t->b-c->s-du quark decays through the strong force), and slower=more informative bosons: -> Higgs (o spin) ->Neutrino (1/2 spin) -> Photon (1 spin); in a series of growing entropy ages which ended in the recombination era, in which the entropy growing ‘death’ finally finished, when the system had created enough up and down and electron quarks in a dual sea of neutrinos and photons, which started now the opposite arrow of evolution of matter, giving birth to atoms, stars and in its furnaces new elements of higher mass, while the galaxy acquired its structure, with a central black hole of remnant top quarks, a halo of strange quarks survivors of the quark gluon soup, in stable forms (dibaryons, strangelets), and an intermediate region of ud matter, first in plasma state and then as the galaxy reached its present form in stars and planets.

Thus the evolution of the galaxy and perhaps the Universe, depending on which scale we observe the big-bang (a quasar big-bang or a cosmic big-bang, which we shall soon discuss), is just part of the eternal cycles of creation and destruction of mass and energy, the worldcycle of physical systems, between the arrow of life and death, perfectly resumed in those ‘Universal constants of action’ for each scale, which in the cosmic scale amounts to E<c=>M back and forth worldcycles of big-bangs and big crunches of energy into mass, and to similar detailed events in every other scales, in the quantum scale to E<v> H and in the thermodynamic scale to E < ST > PV, in the particle scale, Beta Decay –<-> Electron capture, in the star scale Nova<-> Star formation , in the galactic scale, quasar big bang < -> Galactic evolution.

It is worth to notice though that the process of formation of the Tƒ element are slow life processes of aggregation, so for example galactic evolution goes through the first nebulae age, the spiral galaxy and the globular galaxy till all matter is swallowed by the black hole, which then dies in a quasar big-bang of a few moment, and Mass aggregation goes lumping molecular matter in slow gas->liquid->solid crystal growth cycles of life to become destroyed in a brief moment by fire or nuclear explosion. So it also follows that all physical systems obey the inversion of the zero sum between life and death such as life arrow:

Max. Tƒ x Min. Sp (lasting long in time in reduced space) Vs. Death arrow= Max. S x Min. Tƒ (lasting short in time in a long spread of space).

Of which the most clear example is the big-bang big life cycle of the Universe, as the big-bang, if certain, lasted a quanta of Planck time in which the inflaton Universe expanded enormously in space (min. Tƒ = Max. Spe= death), while the process of evolution and formation of matter, stars and galaxies has lasted 14 billion years.

**THE FULL ANALYSIS: CREATION OF PHYSICAL 5DST SUPERORGANISMS.**

Mass* is as all other emergent time enclosures of a surface of energies*, a symbiotic creation of a new ‘species’ of physical systems, in which 3 elements come together as a whole:

Spe<ExI>Tƒ, whereas the formation of a Tƒ-membrane-center invaginating the ExI world, over an Spe-field, ‘CREATES’ the new emergent plane, in which the fundamental laws and parameters and operandi and ratios/constants of all TŒ systems will then appear ‘magically’. As such the fundamental element of a new physical system, as a new biological system is the complementarity body-head, wave-particle, vital space, enclosure, centered into a ‘center of gravity’ point, born of the shrinking of a Poincare’s Conjecture that becomes real:

The creation of a physical system requires the formation of a membrane, in 2 or 3 dimensions (4 or 5 dimensions in the more complex relativity and 5D full model systems), which becomes the external informative membrane that will develop an enclosure to a volume of vital space-energy, and form within that volume a ‘mirror’ image of the world in which the system exists, by shrinking according to the Poincare conjecture the membrane into a central point (in the graph the point is external, but it will be in the center of ‘gravity’ of the system). At that point a new physical/biological/topological system of reality is formed, with the following minimal structural elements.