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H-R worldcycle

±∞∆•ST

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SUMMARY:

EXI: stars.

Time symmetry H-R diagram. Ages and Evolution of Stars:

starflowchart

In the graph, the Time-space symmetries of stars, along its relative ‘Tƒ’ and Sp parameters of spe ctral type (frequency-form) and spatial size.starbirthage

They form a lineal function except in the Lorentzian limiting regions, inn which stars will both collapse into a big-bang that will dissociate its parts, Max. Sp x Tƒ, but also give birth to a more evolved Max. Tƒ being, which in the case of neutron and black hole stars will imply an evolution from the ∆-thermodynamic scale of ud-quarks into the gravitational scales in 0 temperatures of black holes and neutrons stars

In that regard the life of Stars and its organic form have a simple a(nti)symmetric equation in time and space:

Time antisymmetry: ∆+2: Es: Gas Nebulae≥ ST: H-R sequence ≥ Dwarf, Pulsar or hole

Space Symmetry: ∆+2: Sp: Photosphere ≤ ST: Radiation zone ≥ It: Nuclei

 

grav_heat_eq
In the graph, the balance between the central zero-point of ‘gravity’ and the ST-pressure of radiation.

5D Asymmetry: ∑ œ-1: plasma particles>∏Œ: Stars>∆+1: Galaxy

As in the case of other Œ-species we shall study here its main features, according to the linguistic-isomorphic method starting from the subjective errors of human perception.

As usual humans perceive better the time ages and worldcycle of any species by observing them in space in different states of their time cycle. This is the case of stars and it is called the H-r Diagram, which therefore will be the first symmetry studied here.

The symmetry of its 5D planes is also well known as stars are the factory that reproduces atoms of the intermediate space-time of the galaxy (our ud-matter world) and finally when they die produce both strangelet (pulsar stars) and black holes (huge stars with enough mass to collapse into a reversed particle reaction till creating at op quark star). So the biggest uncertainty of stars happens in the analysis of its central Tƒ-nucleus.

Stars in that sense can only be observed externally and from the external phenomena (granules, magnetic fields gravitational forces) to deduce some of its internal properties. 5D physics allow us to model further the internal Tƒ-center of stars and consider likely the main error of star analysis, the lack of understanding of its internal structure, which as all Tƒ elements, should be highly informative, hence cold. Thus the center of the star must be NOT as hot as the membrane but much colder.

This realization we adventured decades ago for planets, and it was latter proved (planets have solid crystal cores). And it should be proved for stars, whose center should be made of super fluid helium and hydrogen, and likely be able to produce cold fusion (as all thermodynamic processes must have an asymmetric duality between cold processes made in slow time, with minimal energy (min. Es x Max. Tƒ) and hot processes made in fast time with maximal energy (Max. Es x min. Tƒ), in a clear symmetry with the processes of conception (slow informative birth) and death (fast entropic destruction).

So we shall when completed deal with all those symmetries in the aforementioned order.

The H-R diagram shows the 3 ages of stars, through its Entropy & information parameters.

The life, evolution and death of stars are depicted in the H-R Diagram, which classifies stars according to its E & O parameters, as the atomic table does with atoms:

Max. Sp: Brightness or Magnitude, which is a spatial parameter that grows with the size of the star.

Max. Tƒ: Spectral type, (color or frequency), which classifies stars according to its temporal form.

Yet the H-R diagram is only a representation of the 2nd and 3rd ages of stars – since the young age of the star as nebulae of max. Spatial extension and min. formal complexity (as all young ages are) is not represented. So we add on the left side the 1st age of a star as a nebulae of max.extension. Then the H-R graph shows the 3 ages of stars and the main isomorphisms of Es x Tƒ cycles applied to them:

– (∆+1): Most stars are born as spatial nebulae of max. extension.

– Max. Es: Then they implode into blue giants of max. Entropy.

– ES=TƑ: They reduce its size and grow in atomic complexity through a mature, yellow age of balance between their Sp and Tƒ parameters. The sun is now in that balanced age…

– Max. Tƒ: They collapse in a 3rd age of slow decline as its I X E parameters diminish toward its death, becoming white dwarfs.

∆+1: Or they evolve in a loop of growing I X E force (top right graph), mutating into a Worm Hole.

From those elements it is easy to enunciate the main events of the time symmetry of stars:

Star birth

All stars are born from a nebula (cloud) of gas (hydrogen, helium, and a little bit of everything else) and dust.
One such nebula, often studied, is the Orion Nebula.
If the nebula is dense enough, it will eventually start collapsing under the influence of its own gravity.
As the nebula contracts, it heats up and the rising core temperature and pressure eventually causes hydrogen to fuse. At that point, a star is born.
For stars to be able to sustain nuclear fusion, their mass must be at least 0.08 times our Sun’s mass, which is equivalent to about 80 Jupiters.

On the high end, stars cannot be more massive than about 150 times our Sun because they simply produce too much energy and become unstable at that point. (Note that several stars more massive than 150 times the Sun have been discovered, but these are extremely rare.)
When the gravitational tendency to collapse is balanced by the tendency to expand due to the heat generated by nuclear fusion, the star is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium. At that point, the star is on the main sequence of the HR diagram.
The newborn star will have a luminosity and surface temperature now that will change very little over the course of its lifetime on the main sequence.

Death of low-mass stars

binarynova

Low-mass stars are those that end up as white dwarfs. High-mass stars are those that end their lives in a supernova.
Our Sun is an example of a low-mass star; Betelgeuse is an example of a high-mass star.
Stars with masses 0.08M < M < 10M (which is the majority of them) live quietly and contently, not changing much, for several billion years on the main sequence.

A star begins to die once it converts all the hydrogen in the core into helium.
As hydrogen is used up in the inner and hottest part of the core, the relatively inert helium-rich (hydrogen-depleted) core begins to collapse, and in so doing releases gravitational energy. This energy quickly heats up the outer hydrogen-rich layers and ignites the fusion of hydrogen in a thin shell immediately surrounding the hydrogen-depleted core. As this process continues, the hydrogen-fusing shell migrates outward and heats up the envelope of the star, which then causes the whole star to expand into a Red Giant.

For the lowest-mass stars, core pressure and temperature are not sufficiently high to ignite nuclear fusion of helium. The core then cools while the outer envelope continues to expand. Ultimately, the helium core forms a hot but cooling corpse known as a white dwarf, surrounded by an expanding outer envelope of hydrogen and helium known as the planetary nebula.

The Helix Nebula (also known as NGC 7293) is one of the closest planetary nebulae to Earth (650 light-years away). It is often referred to as the Eye of God on the Internet.

The Helix Nebula is an example of a planetary nebula created at the end of the life of a Sun-like star.

Somewhat higher-mass stars will fuse helium into carbon for a while to produce a denser core composed of carbon “ash” in the center, surrounded by a shell of burning helium, surrounded by a shell of burning hydrogen, which is surrounded by an envelope of inactive (no burning) hydrogen and helium.
If the star has even more mass and thus a denser and hotter core, carbon will start to fuse to produce even heavier elements in the center. Another shell of hydrogen burning will form, and beneath it a shell of helium burning.

Death of high-mass stars

In the next graph we consider the 3 sub-species of stars, the ud, light stars, Strange pulsars (neutron stars) and top quark stars (black holes). The natural evolution of a Given Max Sp x Tƒ function define when the collapse of enough matter can create an w2 x r 3 mass system with enough density of mass to accelerate its time clock beyond c-speed in top quark black holes:

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High-mass stars have relatively short main-sequence lives: Max. Sp =Min. Tƒ.

High-mass stars have relatively short main-sequence lives: Max. Sp =Min. Tƒ. A 15M star, for example, lives for only about 10 million years before turning into a Red Giant.
And in its death, they reverse their function into the maximal informative element of the Universe, the black hole.
When the star first runs out of hydrogen to fuse in its core it will behave similarly to lower mass red giants. It will first begin fusion of hydrogen in a shell around the core and the core will heat and fuse helium into carbon. There will also be carbon and helium fusion into oxygen. The star’s envelope also bloats out to very large sizes (Supergiants).
The supergiant’s core will fuse very heavy elements from carbon and oxygen all the way up to Iron.

Elements heavier than iron cannot be used as a source of energy through fusion. They can, however, be split into lighter elements to release energy, but this process (fission) does not occur in stars.
The star takes on an onion-like structure, with shells of different elements fusing into heavier elements, in progressively shorter phases.

For 20-Sun star, hydrogen is exhausted in the core within a few million years and iron develops within about a day (see table below).
Ultimately, when the star exhausts its supply of elements in the core lighter than iron, the core collapses in an extremely violent event known as a supernova.
The supernova leaves behind either a neutron star or, in the case of the heaviest stars, a black hole.

Density/size comparison of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes

A white dwarf consists essentially of tightly packed atoms which constitute the core of a Sun-like star.
The white dwarf of a Sun-like star is about 100 times denser than the Sun.
A teaspoon of white dwarf material would weigh about 15 tons.
The typical white dwarf is roughly the size of the Earth.
A neutron star is essentially the core of a star collapsed into a ball of tightly packed nuclei.
A neutron star is over a thousand times denser than a white dwarf.
A teaspoon of neutron star material would weigh about 4 billion tons.
A typical neutron star is roughly the size of a city.

A black hole is the collapsed core of a star so densely packed that it has virtually no size.
The infinitely small volume into which all the matter in a black hole is compressed is called the central singularity.
The imaginary sphere that measures how close to the singularity you can safely get is called the event horizon. Once you have passed the event horizon, it becomes impossible to escape: you will be drawn in by the black hole’s gravitational pull and squashed into the singularity.
The size of the event horizon (called the Schwarzschild radius) is proportional to the mass of the black hole.

Astronomers have found black holes with event horizons ranging from 6 miles to the size of our solar system, although event horizons can, in principle, be bigger or smaller than this. But in principle, black holes can exist with even smaller or larger horizons.
Any object compressed sufficiently can be turned into a black hole. The Schwarzschild radius for this object is directly related to the mass of the object. For example, the Schwarzschild radius of the Earth is about the size of a marble (if the Earth could somehow be compressed to this size).

Flowchart of Stellar Evolution

All stars follow the same basic series of steps in the lives.
Low-mass stars go through a red giant phase which ultimately turns into a planetary nebula with a white dwarf in the center.
High-mass stars go through a red supergiant phase which ultimately results in a supernova, leaving behind either a neutron star or a black hole.
The deciding factor in the fate of a star is its mass.
Stars whose core is less than 1.4 solar masses (the Chandrasekhar limit) will leave behind a white dwarf, the size of which is inversely related to its mass.

Note that the initial mass of this star is much greater than its core, but much of the mass is lost once the planetary nebula separates from the core.
Stars whose core is in the range 1.4-3 solar masses will leave behind a neutron star (much denser than a white dwarf). Note that the initial mass of this star is much greater than its core, but much of the mass is lost during the supernova phase.
Above 3 solar masses (the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit), a quark star might be created, although this is currently mostly conjecture.
Any stellar core over 5 solar masses will inevitably succumb to gravitational collapse, producing a black hole (much denser than a neutron star).

Nova

If a white dwarf has a close binary companion, the white dwarf may accrete gas from the companion’s outer atmosphere. The gravitational energy released by the captured gas may be sufficiently great to start a fusion reaction on the surface of the white dwarf. This flare-up is known as a nova.
A nova can recur many times, is about 100,000 solar luminosities.
fades after a few months (sometimes years).
is more common than supernovas (2-3/yr observed, about 200 so far).

Recap. The H-R graph shows also the process of evolution of stars into Worm Holes, which can be explained both mathematically and organically, based in the self-similarity of all space-time species.

Space symmetry, the structure of stars.

625stars parts

Stars have a simple a(nti)symmetric equation in space:

Space Symmetry: ∆+2: Sp: Photosphere ≤ ST: Radiation zone ≥ It: Nuclei

5D Asymmetry: ∑ œ-1: plasma particles>∏Œ: Stars>∆+1: Galaxy

 

In the graph, the structure of the stars, which should have a central, liquid super fluid Helium vortex, and be able to reproduce cold fusion processes, according to the dualities of time-coldness, and space-heat.

 

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