∆+2: SOLAR SYSTEMS
Let us make a brief review of the 10 isomorphisms, before we make general review of its application to each scale studied in a post of this 4th line.
0th Disomorphism: MONAD: In the graph above, the mind-body structure of stars and planets.
The 1st isomorphism is the fractal Generator feedback equation that defines the 3 parts in space, 3 ages in time and 3 scales of all 5D space-time beings. It is thus the external more synoptic, formal description of any species of the Universe.
Black holes have an ∞ hyperbolic Œ-point, a c event horizon membrane and in between toroid cycles that transform ¥-light into tachyon dark energy, expelled through its axis, which move them through blue/red inverse jets that contract and expand space.
Stars have an ultra hot external atmosphere, a likely super-fluid, cold ordered center and magnetic cycles that transfer energy and mass between both.
It studies the relative center of Maximal Information of the system, which encompasses the will of action and survival of the super organism. It is therefore the why of the system, the center of gravity, mind, focus, charge, government, language… which strutctures and makes possible the existence of a whole.
Tiƒ-heads/particles with its logic mental mapping guide the system towards a future through the realization of ‘åctions of space-time’ that absorb energy and information for the system, and emit it reproducing the system and moving it, as they evolve socially into wholes.
While physicists have as a dogma not to consider real anything that cannot be measured externally (even if they break often this law, as in the study of invisible gravitation, in GST, WE ACCEPT the existence of such minds or points of view, which create the order of the Universe through infinite points of view that organise its vital wave-body-territory.
It follows that black holes are the DNA of galaxies, the final informative age of stars, and the perceptive system of celestial bodies.
Stars on the other hand might have an ultra cold proto-form of chemical consciousness, in the shape of superfluid liquid structures, in its center.
1-0 Disomorphism. Fractal generator
ITS Existential Constants: ∑S, ∏T, SxT, S/T, T/S, Œ∆±1, 5Å.
fundamental Constants ARE ratios that define the vital space, cyclical time, scales and interactions between the parts of the being. constantS AE therefore is perhaps the most important connection between the Fractal generator and the precise mathematical equations of each science. And its extension is enormous. Since as all space is quantized into inner cellular quanta, and all entity is performing repetitive discontinuous time cycles and actions in its external world, quantification is at the core of the fractal structure of the Universe, and almost all the information about the ∑S, ST, ∏Tƒ, its exchanges, <, >, ≈ and scales, ∆, and social evolutionary ladder, can be modeled with a quantity. However in T.Œ it is more important to the define the qualitative whys of actions, in an inverse fashion as how current science works (often merely a process of quantification, without caring for reason, but only for the praxis of control and ab=use by man of the other entity through quantitative knowledge.)
The most important are the natural combinations of the Sp and Tƒ elements or entropy fields/limbs and Tƒ, time clocks of its particle/heads, which combine into the present waves-bodies of the system. Thus in general we can define quantitatively a system with its 3+1 main internal parameters:
The Sp/Tƒ energy density of the system; its inverse, Tƒ/Sp information density & its Sp x Tƒ speed or force of existence, maximized when both elements are in balance, Sp≈Tƒ; and finally the scalar parameter of the Active Magnitude that defines the value of the Œ-point. The scalar magnitude becomes then the more important parameter, which humans use to classify each entity as a variation of a general species (mass for particles, charge for fields, IQ for human brains, etc.) It must be noticed that all systems will have a range for each constant, specially for the Sp x Tƒ, speed, as they can switch between space and time states, varying the product of its existential speed/force, within its limits of Max. S x Min. T and Max. T x Min. S, which define the ‘threshold of death of the system’ and also its ‘young, entropic gas/field’ and old informative solid states.
In the same manner we can consider 3 ratios or external constants that relate the whole being, Œ with its outer world, in which it performs its social cycles, also defined by 3 Spe- fields of entropy, Tƒ-information and ST-reproduction. And so in all those ratios we must also consider quantitative ∑ and ∏ numbers that define the size of the social groups and the speed of the frequency clocks of the system. Those quantifiers will also define the size of the being, the duration of its life cycle and those of the world in which he is inscribed, and inversely those of the smaller cells/atoms it is made. In this manner the ternary principles and fractal subdivision of beings in different scales and organs, multiply those 7 fundamental constants as we make more exhaustive analysis of the parts and scales of the superorganism.
Astrophysics deploy an enormous range of detailed studies in all the actions, social groups and space-time fields of stars, and its universal constants.
The four and five isomorphisms deal with the 5 ±∆ e, ï, û fractal space-time åctions of all beings that move, feed on energy, gauge information, reproduce and evolve socially from the simplest particles to the highest systems; whose integral creates in space a super organism in time a world cycle.
Those actions that restore the internal balance of the 3 parts of the organism have as Finality the survival, reproduction and social evolution of the system. Thus they are the Program of existence of all beings, reinforced by the fact that those species, which do not absorb energy and information for their Tƒ-informative particles/heads and ST-reproductive body/wave, do not survive. And those who do not reproduce disappear after death. And finally those, which do not evolve socially into stronger, larger wholes, become extinguished or preyed and enslaved by stronger species. Thus the program embedded in the actions of all beings imposes itself by survival and becomes the whys of the actions all systems perform.
It is an isomorphism closely related to the œ-point, particle, head or Aristotelian unmoved mind, God of its relative world, which acts as the center that synchronizes the system, develops its will by switching between those 5 actions, as it gauges information and commands a body on a field of entropic motions, towards field of energy and communication with other points.
Thus, as we enter into the details of existence of the being we must study each minimal action and cycle of space-time of the being across its ∆±4 planes of existence, connected by the 4th 5th isomorphisms. Since the reason the œ-points perceives other scales of reality is the praxis of survival, of its program of actions, which extracts kinetic energy-motion and information-bits from those far away ∆±>2 scales.
Both isomorphisms connect the system with the external world and the different fractal points of its larger and smaller scales, which each Œ-fractal beings uses differently according to its relative ∆-size. So the smallest quanta in the limit of sensorial experience, ∆-4 become the entropic quanta of accelerated motions, the ∆-3 bits, the pixels of its mental informative mapping, the ∆-2 points, its bites of energy, the ∆-1 quanta, its internal cells which construct the system, and are therefore ‘cared for’ as opposed to the smaller quanta, which are destroyed, or enslaved. Finally the ∆-scale is that of the individual ego and equal reproductive couples or members of its ∆+1 social networks, where the point becomes itself, a submissive quanta of the larger social whole to which it belongs as part of the world in which it performs a specialized role as S, St or T-cell.
∆ï-3: Stars are cosmic plants with reversed energy/information parameters to those of black holes. Thus they should ‘perceive’ or guide its motions by electromagnetic fields, and show to that aim strong magnetic fields, which acts as the quantum magnetic number acts in atoms, ordering them (isomorphism between the electronic nebulae and galactic nebulae, according to the Fractal Generator).
∆e-2: Stars feed in Hydrogen clouds that become its nurseries. Black holes feed on them.
∆œ-1: Stars reproduce atoms. Black holes catalyze the reproduction of stars and galaxies. They are born from stars, in explosive ‘births, called Novae and Supernovas that destroy the ‘host star’.
S10: Stars form couples, triads and growing herds, called galaxies. Black holes swarm together in the center of galaxies.
û+1: Black holes are the ‘gravitational’ DNA-animals that control galaxies and create its dark matter networks. They form swarms in its center and move randomly around the ‘galacells’ probably organizing it and catalyzing its own reproduction, as the galaxy seems to be its natural domain – not a good sign to make them on Earth, as the LHC pretends.
Stars are ∆-1 ‘cells’ of galaxies. They associate with other stars in groups. Its generator equation shows its symmetries of topological regions and in detail explains its function in the ∆+1 scale: to be the mitochondria that reproduces the atomic substances of the galaxy. Its bidimensional layers increases its form, its information as we go towards its denser center.
∆±4 Fractals with the 5D Plane structure of the galaxy extend across ∆œ±4 planes above and below its black hole œ-point of view, of which:
-3 ∆±1 closer scales form its cellular/individual/social (atomic/thermodynamic/gravitational) superorganism and outer world. Thus the closest 3 fractal organic social scales of parts and wholes conform any super organism and its world cycle of existence, with its inverse arrows of motion-entropy, ∆+1, the world, and its lower ∆-1 genetic, coding scale of cellular/quantum information.
As information is more abundant in smaller scales and so it flows upwards, coding larger scales. While motion-size is higher in larger scales and so motion flows downwards with no entropy.
The cellular/atomic ∆-1 scale, the organic, thermodynamic ∆-scale and the ∆+1 gravitational, social scales (biological and physical systems) are thus the essential scales for which the being cares.
But Beyond there are other scales the entity perceives in as much as it obtains energy from the ∆-2 scale, in beings extended in its ∆+2 territorial world, perceives pixels of information from the ∆-3 scales, with smaller pixels coming in the nested, ‘russian doll’ Universe from the larger, solar galactic scale, and finally moves expanding ∆-4 gravitational fields, from the largest possible, cosmic ∆+4 scale. This nested game in which larger organisms use smaller cells to feed and perceive makes the Universal fractal symmetric according to the Tƒ x Sp = ∆±4 metric equation.
Thus in this manner the first 5 isomorphisms, œ-point, or mind which fixes the spatial form, S≈T dualities, S<ST>T ternary symmetries and ∆±4 planes defines structurally in space, the being.
Yet the being lives dynamically, and so the time isomorphisms, study in more detail the dynamic space-time cycles, evolutions and social growth of the species – which integrate in time its program of vital existence, its 5 actions.
The 2nd isomorphism, studies space and time 2-manifolds explaining its creation processes departing from its minimal quanta, its social growth, 3 fundamental sub-species, Space-time, combined, Holographic bidimensional membranes, or ∑S, superposed bidimensional planes. And ∏T, accelerated, time clocks of increasing frequency≈speed and S< => T beats, as systems changes from spatial to time states, S>T<S…
It is the symmetry of space-time, as all systems that exist must have at least those 2 elements.
The 2nd isomorphism defines the ‘beats’ of existence of the being as it changes between its space and time states.
Sp-Stars use gravitation as Motion. Tƒ-Quark stars (pulsars, holes) use it as information.
3rd Disomorphism we have according to the åctions entities perform -3 internal + 3 external networks social classes.
Ξ±3 Black holes are the DNA brains of galaxies, which order its mitochondria stars which feed on atomic gas and smaller lumps of matter (planets, comets…)
The 8th isomorphism studies in more depth, the diversification of species in time and 3×3 social classes in ∆ – or hierarchical structure of the superorganism in relationship to its internal organic parts and scales, and its external world, through the concept of Social classes.
Since all systems will be ruled by its Tƒ informative neuronal-castes in control of the networks of the system, in symbiosis with its ST, re=productive body wave, and will ab=use its entropic, motion oriented limbs/fields, which in many cases will be external to the system. While in the outer world the system will play a role in its larger ∆+1 scale either as an entropic, reproductive or informative point of a larger network.
Variations of species arebased in the dualities of space and time, the ternary elements of the Generator equation, the previously defined Universal constants of balance, which vary for each species and the organic social scales in which the system is integrated, with different degrees of organization, from herds to superorganisms. We call it the eight isomorphism as 2³ =8 resume the dual and ternary fractal principles of creation and its combinatory terms. For example we find often 6 sub-varieties according to the primacy of the 3 elements, S, ST, T of the system as in the 6 varieties of topological linguistics, SVO, SOV, VOS, VSO, OVS, OSV and we find in most systems, the gender duality of females specialized in the reproductive functions, dominated by the body-wave states (relative present systems) and males, dominant either in its unbalanced maximal energetic lineal limbs or informative brains (past or future systems)
And we find the same dualities in physical systems, expressed in the principle of complementarity ST-wave, Tƒ-Particle and the ternary structure of S-fields, ST-wave and T-particles.
Thus we shall study all kind of differentiations of species according to the relative importance of its heads, bodies and limbs, which become potentiated as a strategy of survival. So predator species are dominant in lineal energy, limbs; other species survive by being extremely good at reproduction, such as fungi, and others by being more informative, such as apes. And we will be able, combining dualities and ternary symmetries and social scales, to classify and account for all species both in a single ‘plane of the 5th dimension’ and through its social evolution and growth across the ternary planes of the 5th dimension that conform a given world or family of species, through the growth of its scalar, most important Magnitude. So there are 3 families of masses and particles, and among those 3 families there are either mesons made with two anti-symmetric particles or 3-varieties, and all of them can be easily classified into the octets of quantum physics.
The H-R graph shows the ‘symmetry’ between ages, evolution and creative diversification of stars.
8th Disomorphism. The motions and world cycles of stars are those of other forms of matter, and are in its full life-existence studied by the H-r diagram (see 3rd isomorphism)
7TH DIsomorphism: Its ages and evolution: Spe>ST≥Tƒ
The 7TH isomorphism deals with the 3 ages of Time and its symmetry with the 3 organs in simultaneous space of the beings, which are the cause of those 3 ages in time, as those 3 organic parts of space dominate each sequential age of Time, in motion as Sp>TS>Tƒ.
The 7TH isomorphism is the most complete reflection of the Fractal generator in its synchronic analysis: Sp (limbs/Fields)<Ts(wave-body)>Tf (head/particle) and diachronic analysis, Ps>ST>Tƒ. And so it closes a ‘first simplex’ analysis of the being, as a ‘whole’.
The 7TH isomorphism defines its 3 organic/network topologies in space… and according to the fractal principle its 3 x 3+o subsystems.
The 3±∆ time dimensions or ages of stars between its plasma birth and ∆+1 evolution into black holes or ∆-1 death into novae and white dwarfs is shown in the H-R diagram of evolution, which uses 2 S & T parameters, S-ize and Frequency/form to reflect its ∆5D metric: Spe x Tiƒ= Constant. This region of relative constancy on the space-time product value of stars’ parameters is called in astrophysics, the ‘main sequence’, yet as the star goes through its 3 ages of evolution, the lineal value of its 5D metric equation differs, as it happens to any other system along the 3 ages that develop it: Max. Spe (young star entering the sequence) S=T (steady state of the sequence, with a balanced star) and final 3rd age, in which information, mass-density dominates energy, ‘radiation’, and the star collapses into a black hole or white dwarf.
HR diagram shows changes in Brightness≈Sp & Tƒ≈ Color through 3±∆ ages:
– ∆-1: Most stars are born as spatial nebulae of max. extension.
– Max. Sp: Then they implode into blue giants of max. energy.
– Sp≈Tƒ: They reduce its size and grow in atomic complexity through a mature, yellow age of balance between their Sp and Tƒ parameters. The sun is now in that balanced age…
-Max. Tƒ: They collapse in a 3rd age of slow decline as its SxT parameters diminish toward its death, becoming white dwarfs.
∆+1: Or they evolve in a loop of growing SxT force mutating into Black Holes (boson quark stars).
Then we study how all those systems and species evolve socially through nine decametric scales into organic 1societies that grow from 10º=1 individuals into 10¹=genetic families, and so on till 1±0¹º elements form a new ∆-plane of existence (quanta of forces for each dimension of space-time, atoms in a DNA molecule, cells in an organism, humans on the planet in which they act as neurons of Gaia, stars in a regular galaxy).
û+1: Black holes are the ‘gravitational’ DNA-animals that control galaxies and create its dark matter networks. They form swarms in its center and move randomly around the ‘galacells’ probably organizing it and catalyzing its own reproduction, as the galaxy seems to be its natural domain.
∑S: Stars evolve in 3 linguistic phases, first ruled by:
- Spatial languages: Responsible for the first scales of social stars, from Binary Sp x Tƒ duality couples, up to:
S3: 10 ³: spatial herds feeding on gas, (thousands of stars).
S3-S6: (up to a million stars) Then by temporal languages: magnetic fields that order open and closed star clusters and globular clusters (up to a billion stars) which become then…
S6-§10: small galaxies with black holes in its centers, which develop the gravitational and dark energy/matter equivalent to the nervous language of living organisms that take the star group to the organic, galactic configuration.
And so we shall consider the final structure of the 10 planes of the 5th dimension, the last isomorphism of the Universe, as all relative Uo species relate the parts of its lower U-∆ scales which they use as pixels of informative minds, bites of energy, (bits and quanta in classic scientific terms), cells of its wholes, and are parts of larger wholes.
ST-ARS : THE MITHOCONDRIA.
EXI: stars. Time symmetry
Now, there are ‘believers’ in all human sciences, religions and forms of art, which like to think whatever they do is the absolute truth. This is not how the Universe works. Still, in each cultural age of mankind, there have been teleological ‘priesthoods’, and in the age of the machine, astrophysicists, who sponsor the biggest machines do provide us with a theory of metaphysics, called the big-bang. We shall then consider it also. But as we said, the purpose of astrophysics is to study the superorganism of the galaxy, Its generator equation and its symmetries of space-time, as physics is concerned with the ∆-2 superorganism of atoms, its ∆-3 parts (particles) and its ∆-2 societies: molecules.
So we can do a fast survey of its parts.
Time symmetry H-R diagram. Ages and Evolution of Stars:
In the graph, the Time-space symmetries of stars, along its relative ‘Tƒ’ and Sp parameters of spe ctral type (frequency-form) and spatial size.
They form a lineal function except in the Lorentzian limiting regions, inn which stars will both collapse into a big-bang that will dissociate its parts, Max. Sp x Tƒ, but also give birth to a more evolved Max. Tƒ being, which in the case of neutron and black hole stars will imply an evolution from the ∆-thermodynamic scale of ud-quarks into the gravitational scales in 0 temperatures of black holes and neutrons stars
In that regard the life of Stars and its organic form have a simple a(nti)symmetric equation in time and space:
Time antisymmetry: ∆+2: Es: Gas Nebulae≥ ST: H-R sequence ≥ Dwarf, Pulsar or hole
Space Symmetry: ∆+2: Sp: Photosphere ≤ ST: Radiation zone ≥ It: Nuclei
In the graph, the balance between the central zero-point of ‘gravity’ and the ST-pressure of radiation.
5D Asymmetry: ∑ œ-1: plasma particles>∏Œ: Stars>∆+1: Galaxy
As in the case of other Œ-species we shall study here its main features, according to the linguistic-isomorphic method starting from the subjective errors of human perception.
As usual humans perceive better the time ages and worldcycle of any species by observing them in space in different states of their time cycle. This is the case of stars and it is called the H-r Diagram, which therefore will be the first symmetry studied here.
The symmetry of its 5D planes is also well known as stars are the factory that reproduces atoms of the intermediate space-time of the galaxy (our ud-matter world) and finally when they die produce both strangelet (pulsar stars) and black holes (huge stars with enough mass to collapse into a reversed particle reaction till creating at op quark star). So the biggest uncertainty of stars happens in the analysis of its central Tƒ-nucleus.
Stars in that sense can only be observed externally and from the external phenomena (granules, magnetic fields gravitational forces) to deduce some of its internal properties. 5D physics allow us to model further the internal Tƒ-center of stars and consider likely the main error of star analysis, the lack of understanding of its internal structure, which as all Tƒ elements, should be highly informative, hence cold. Thus the center of the star must be NOT as hot as the membrane but much colder.
This realization we adventured decades ago for planets, and it was latter proved (planets have solid crystal cores). And it should be proved for stars, whose center should be made of super fluid helium and hydrogen, and likely be able to produce cold fusion (as all thermodynamic processes must have an asymmetric duality between cold processes made in slow time, with minimal energy (min. Es x Max. Tƒ) and hot processes made in fast time with maximal energy (Max. Es x min. Tƒ), in a clear symmetry with the processes of conception (slow informative birth) and death (fast entropic destruction).
So we shall when completed deal with all those symmetries in the aforementioned order.
The H-R diagram shows the 3 ages of stars, through its Entropy & information parameters.
The life, evolution and death of stars are depicted in the H-R Diagram, which classifies stars according to its E & O parameters, as the atomic table does with atoms:
Max. Sp: Brightness or Magnitude, which is a spatial parameter that grows with the size of the star.
Max. Tƒ: Spectral type, (color or frequency), which classifies stars according to its temporal form.
Yet the H-R diagram is only a representation of the 2nd and 3rd ages of stars – since the young age of the star as nebulae of max. Spatial extension and min. formal complexity (as all young ages are) is not represented. So we add on the left side the 1st age of a star as a nebulae of max.extension. Then the H-R graph shows the 3 ages of stars and the main isomorphisms of Es x Tƒ cycles applied to them:
– (∆+1): Most stars are born as spatial nebulae of max. extension.
– Max. Es: Then they implode into blue giants of max. Entropy.
– ES=TƑ: They reduce its size and grow in atomic complexity through a mature, yellow age of balance between their Sp and Tƒ parameters. The sun is now in that balanced age…
– Max. Tƒ: They collapse in a 3rd age of slow decline as its I X E parameters diminish toward its death, becoming white dwarfs.
∆+1: Or they evolve in a loop of growing I X E force (top right graph), mutating into a Worm Hole.
From those elements it is easy to enunciate the main events of the time symmetry of stars:
All stars are born from a nebula (cloud) of gas (hydrogen, helium, and a little bit of everything else) and dust. One such nebula, often studied, is the Orion Nebula. If the nebula is dense enough, it will eventually start collapsing under the influence of its own gravity. As the nebula contracts, it heats up and the rising core temperature and pressure eventually causes hydrogen to fuse. At that point, a star is born. For stars to be able to sustain nuclear fusion, their mass must be at least 0.08 times our Sun’s mass, which is equivalent to about 80 Jupiters.
On the high end, stars cannot be more massive than about 150 times our Sun because they simply produce too much energy and become unstable at that point. (Note that several stars more massive than 150 times the Sun have been discovered, but these are extremely rare.) When the gravitational tendency to collapse is balanced by the tendency to expand due to the heat generated by nuclear fusion, the star is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium. At that point, the star is on the main sequence of the HR diagram. The newborn star will have a luminosity and surface temperature now that will change very little over the course of its lifetime on the main sequence.
Death of low-mass stars
Low-mass stars are those that end up as white dwarfs. High-mass stars are those that end their lives in a supernova. Our Sun is an example of a low-mass star; Betelgeuse is an example of a high-mass star. Stars with masses 0.08M < M < 10M (which is the majority of them) live quietly and contently, not changing much, for several billion years on the main sequence.
A star begins to die once it converts all the hydrogen in the core into helium. As hydrogen is used up in the inner and hottest part of the core, the relatively inert helium-rich (hydrogen-depleted) core begins to collapse, and in so doing releases gravitational energy. This energy quickly heats up the outer hydrogen-rich layers and ignites the fusion of hydrogen in a thin shell immediately surrounding the hydrogen-depleted core. As this process continues, the hydrogen-fusing shell migrates outward and heats up the envelope of the star, which then causes the whole star to expand into a Red Giant.
For the lowest-mass stars, core pressure and temperature are not sufficiently high to ignite nuclear fusion of helium. The core then cools while the outer envelope continues to expand. Ultimately, the helium core forms a hot but cooling corpse known as a white dwarf, surrounded by an expanding outer envelope of hydrogen and helium known as the planetary nebula.
The Helix Nebula (also known as NGC 7293) is one of the closest planetary nebulae to Earth (650 light-years away). It is often referred to as the Eye of God on the Internet.
The Helix Nebula is an example of a planetary nebula created at the end of the life of a Sun-like star.
Somewhat higher-mass stars will fuse helium into carbon for a while to produce a denser core composed of carbon “ash” in the center, surrounded by a shell of burning helium, surrounded by a shell of burning hydrogen, which is surrounded by an envelope of inactive (no burning) hydrogen and helium. If the star has even more mass and thus a denser and hotter core, carbon will start to fuse to produce even heavier elements in the center. Another shell of hydrogen burning will form, and beneath it a shell of helium burning.
Death of high-mass stars
In the next graph we consider the 3 sub-species of stars, the ud, light stars, Strange pulsars (neutron stars) and top quark stars (black holes). The natural evolution of a Given Max Sp x Tƒ function define when the collapse of enough matter can create an w2 x r 3 mass system with enough density of mass to accelerate its time clock beyond c-speed in top quark black holes:
High-mass stars have relatively short main-sequence lives: Max. Sp =Min. Tƒ.
High-mass stars have relatively short main-sequence lives: Max. Sp =Min. Tƒ. A 15M star, for example, lives for only about 10 million years before turning into a Red Giant. And in its death, they reverse their function into the maximal informative element of the Universe, the black hole. When the star first runs out of hydrogen to fuse in its core it will behave similarly to lower mass red giants. It will first begin fusion of hydrogen in a shell around the core and the core will heat and fuse helium into carbon. There will also be carbon and helium fusion into oxygen. The star’s envelope also bloats out to very large sizes (Supergiants). The supergiant’s core will fuse very heavy elements from carbon and oxygen all the way up to Iron.
Elements heavier than iron cannot be used as a source of energy through fusion. They can, however, be split into lighter elements to release energy, but this process (fission) does not occur in stars. The star takes on an onion-like structure, with shells of different elements fusing into heavier elements, in progressively shorter phases.
For 20-Sun star, hydrogen is exhausted in the core within a few million years and iron develops within about a day (see table below). Ultimately, when the star exhausts its supply of elements in the core lighter than iron, the core collapses in an extremely violent event known as a supernova. The supernova leaves behind either a neutron star or, in the case of the heaviest stars, a black hole.
Density/size comparison of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes
A white dwarf consists essentially of tightly packed atoms which constitute the core of a Sun-like star. The white dwarf of a Sun-like star is about 100 times denser than the Sun. A teaspoon of white dwarf material would weigh about 15 tons. The typical white dwarf is roughly the size of the Earth. A neutron star is essentially the core of a star collapsed into a ball of tightly packed nuclei. A neutron star is over a thousand times denser than a white dwarf. A teaspoon of neutron star material would weigh about 4 billion tons. A typical neutron star is roughly the size of a city.
A black hole is the collapsed core of a star so densely packed that it has virtually no size. The infinitely small volume into which all the matter in a black hole is compressed is called the central singularity. The imaginary sphere that measures how close to the singularity you can safely get is called the event horizon. Once you have passed the event horizon, it becomes impossible to escape: you will be drawn in by the black hole’s gravitational pull and squashed into the singularity. The size of the event horizon (called the Schwarzschild radius) is proportional to the mass of the black hole.
Astronomers have found black holes with event horizons ranging from 6 miles to the size of our solar system, although event horizons can, in principle, be bigger or smaller than this. But in principle, black holes can exist with even smaller or larger horizons. Any object compressed sufficiently can be turned into a black hole. The Schwarzschild radius for this object is directly related to the mass of the object. For example, the Schwarzschild radius of the Earth is about the size of a marble (if the Earth could somehow be compressed to this size).
Flowchart of Stellar Evolution
All stars follow the same basic series of steps in the lives. Low-mass stars go through a red giant phase which ultimately turns into a planetary nebula with a white dwarf in the center. High-mass stars go through a red supergiant phase which ultimately results in a supernova, leaving behind either a neutron star or a black hole. The deciding factor in the fate of a star is its mass. Stars whose core is less than 1.4 solar masses (the Chandrasekhar limit) will leave behind a white dwarf, the size of which is inversely related to its mass.
Note that the initial mass of this star is much greater than its core, but much of the mass is lost once the planetary nebula separates from the core. Stars whose core is in the range 1.4-3 solar masses will leave behind a neutron star (much denser than a white dwarf). Note that the initial mass of this star is much greater than its core, but much of the mass is lost during the supernova phase. Above 3 solar masses (the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit), a quark star might be created, although this is currently mostly conjecture. Any stellar core over 5 solar masses will inevitably succumb to gravitational collapse, producing a black hole (much denser than a neutron star).
If a white dwarf has a close binary companion, the white dwarf may accrete gas from the companion’s outer atmosphere. The gravitational energy released by the captured gas may be sufficiently great to start a fusion reaction on the surface of the white dwarf. This flare-up is known as a nova. A nova can recur many times, is about 100,000 solar luminosities. fades after a few months (sometimes years). is more common than supernovas (2-3/yr observed, about 200 so far).
Recap. The H-R graph shows also the process of evolution of stars into Worm Holes, which can be explained both mathematically and organically, based in the self-similarity of all space-time species.
Space symmetry, the structure of stars.
Stars have a simple a(nti)symmetric equation in space:
Space Symmetry: ∆+2: Sp: Photosphere ≤ ST: Radiation zone ≥ It: Nuclei
5D Asymmetry: ∑ œ-1: plasma particles>∏Œ: Stars>∆+1: Galaxy
In the graph, the structure of the stars, which should have a central, liquid super fluid Helium vortex, and be able to reproduce cold fusion processes, according to the dualities of time-coldness, and space-heat.
We shall study stars in depth on the 4th line, or else this post will be too long in space not in time… (-;