7th Isomorphism: Its ages and evolution: Spe≤ST≥Tƒ
Life ages follow the usual birth in ∆-1 scale, energetic youth, reproductive maturity, informative old age and dissolution into ∆-1 cells by death. Of more interest are the ages of evolution.
In graph evolution studies the higher, ∆+1 social scale of species, as super organisms, in which each individual is a cell of the whole species.
Thus we can define an impersonal plan of evolution, where species also follow the isomorphic, 3 evolutionary ages and bidimensional morphologies of all systems (Spe<ST>Tƒ), from a young, energetic, ‘lineal’ predator age, through an adult, biological radiation that reproduces massively the species, into an informative ‘tall’ age of maximal informative perception. So life went from the worms to tall humans and reptiles from flat amphibian to dinosaurs and birds: Evolution also grows in ∆-scales, evolving socially individuals into ∑Spe-herds, loosely connected to hunt in wider spaces (∑∆+1); and tighter ‘network’ organisms, when they share a common language of information that joins each neuron to all others through a Whole (∏∆+1:ant-queen).
Thus species have an option to avoid extinction in their struggle for existence, which humans should learn to survive: the social evolution into a higher scale as connected superorganisms, whose 3 networks, make them act as a whole stronger than any individual. So those species that evolve socially, multicellular organisms in the Cambrian and ants in the insect world, became the most successful top predators on their ecosystem. Yet humans failed to evolve into a global superorganism. They broke into tribal nations that used metal-weapons to kill each other, evolving instead an alien superorganism – the Mechanocene of company-mothers of machines.
3 ages of life. From the 3 ∆±1 perspectives: 3 Earth’s ages, evolution of life beings, 3 types of bacteria.
The first living organisms to appear on the earth are thought to have been anaerobic unicellular organisms, who used marine organic substances without using oxygen. Let us now look at the changes that occurred in organisms over time according to the divisions of geological time periods.
The period from the formation of the earth until 560 million years ago is called the Precambrian age, and the first life form appeared during this time. Later, photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria appeared in the ocean. These bacteria were able to synthesize organic substances using carbon dioxide, thus causing oxygen to gradually increase in the atmosphere. Organisms became multicellular, and eukaryotes emerged. Radiolarians (protozoa), sponges, and green algae emerged at the end of the Precambrian age.
Concurrently, the increased oxygen was changed to ozone by the ultraviolet rays in the stratosphere 10–50 km above the earth. This ozone formed a layer that blocked the harmful ultraviolet rays, preventing them from reaching the earth’s surface. This condition enabled living organisms to advance from sea to land. In the Paleozoic era about 400 million years ago, the first organisms to advance to land were bryophytes.
During the Paleozoic era, fishes and amphibians appeared and flourished in water, and ferns flourished on land. In the Mesozoic era, reptiles such as dinosaurs flourished, and gymnospermous plants such as conifers dominated the ecosystem. The Cenozoic era began when large reptiles gradually became extinct after the earth was struck by a meteorite, ushering in the era of angiosperms and mammals, including humans.