4TH SCALE: CELLS. INVARIANCES AND EVOLUTIONARY AGES
In the left side, the cell has 3 st–zones:
– Max. E: It has an external, thin membrane, which in free cells have cilia that move the cell and act-react to external stimuli. In organic cells Entropy is provided by the blood system of the macro-organism. So external cilia disappear and invaginate as lysosomes that kill carbohydrates.
– Max.I: In the center, there is a nucleus of Max.Informative density, filled with cyclical or spiral DNA/RNA’s networks that control the st-point.
– TiƒxSpe: RNAs dominate the intermediate space-time, directing the Entropy organelles, mitochondria or chloroplasts that produce Entropy; and the informative ribosomes that reproduce products, pegged to the Golgi apparatus – a membrane’s invagination.
Topological Isomorphism: Protein bodies & Tƒ-Nucleic Acid minds create SpxTƒ cells.
Expansion of biology through T.Œ
Expansion of biology through T.Œ
This section studies Life systems. They have the same nature that all other systems, but they have more ‘information’ and ‘less energy’ according to the Metrics of 5D-scales: Se x To =K.
In that regard biological beings are more defined by reproductive trends and evolutionary ones, by information than energy. Something, which Darwin neatly established in his book’s famous dictum:
‘As more individuals of each species are born than can survive; consequently, there is a struggle for existence. It follows that any being, if it vary its form in any manner profitable to itself, it will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.’
‘On the Origin of Species’ Darwin, on the arrows of ST-reproduction and To-evolution of form of biological existences.
However 3 huge new fields must be added to complete the Evolutionary and Genetic legs of biology:
- Topological evolution, the analysis of the 3 spatial topological functions and forms or spatial symmetry of all systems made of Spe-limbs/fields, ST-waves/bodies and To-heads/particles that gauge information and direct the path of evolution
- Social evolution along the path of future of the fifth immersion that makes co-exist parts and wholes
- Temporal analysis of the different circadian rhythms speeds of time, palingenesis, and genetic clocks, which accumulate the information of lower scales in ternary patterns of epigenetics beyond the gene-enzyme level.
Expansion of Biology to other sciences.
Once this expansion is done, it gives Biology the full informative, topological, temporal outlook that makes it the top science of the human kind, for several reasons:
– Subjective reason. We Uo, humans perceive biological systems – what we are – closer to us, and since ‘information, form, time cycles, heads/particles’ dominate the other two arrows/topologies of the Universe, reproductive waves-bodies and energetic limbs-fields, we prefer to ‘perceive form’ in our closer range (so we see still the Earth with no motion to perceive better its forms). Thus we ‘see’ more information in biological systems.
– Objective reason: Human life systems, as the supreme ‘zero points’ of information that gauge and perceive the Universe, the most perfect super organisms, MUST become the measure of all things. Life is extremely complex in its varieties, and ‘quality’ of forms (witness just the 3D folding of different protein molecules), as opposed to the ‘quantity’ isoforms of physical crystals, states of matter and cosmic bodies. So we obtain more knowledge of the game of existences, studying life.
-So it is obvious we should expand the concept of complex life organization, to the 2 main other fields of science.
Since human societies must be studied as super organisms of mankind and to eco(nomic)systems and company-mothers of machines, which are both symbiotic but also compete with our species in labor and war fields.
Thus social sciences are also studied as biological systems, of two type, human societies and mechanical life, that are metal-machines, a different ‘system’ than life: the economic ecosystem.
Gaia is a super organism, as Hutton the father of geology rightly stated (he coined the term precisely for Gaia).
Further on laws of biology must be extended to physical systems, some of its properties being clearly organic when we study them in its equilibrium regions of maximal form.
Galaxies are super organisms that can be studied as gala cells, with a DNA black hole gravitational nuclei, a protein membrane or halo of hard strangelets and a cytoplasm of mitochondria stars.
And by the self-similarity in mathematical quantification with atoms (5 d equal metrics) atoms can be also studied as super organisms. And all the things in between:
For example, stars can be studied as life-systems of H-He, superfluid, informative states and super-hot entropic, plasma states of energy. While planets should have Uranium ‘neuronic minds’ with central crystals of iron.
While, bosonic top quark black holes in galaxies, too remote to our information to fully grasp their structure, should act as the DNA of galaxies.
Biology and information the queen of all sciences.
Obviously knowledge is information, so that would be enough to make understand scientists, which is the queen of all sciences.
Thus while biology do follow the same patterns of all other sciences, the reader should understand that the focus of biological systems is in form, not in quantity, in internal hierarchical organization, not in external motion and form. That is, all concepts of General Systems Sciences and its scalar space-time formalism do have a quite different interpretation.
And normally it means to consider internal parameters over external ones, time, slow processes of inner change, over time fast processes of external change (translation), complex curved ‘baroque’ forms, over simplex perfect cyclical ones, etc.
It also means that of all the systems of the Universe the one that gives us a closer homeomorphism with T.Œ is biology, along the formal language of ¬Æ mathematics (i-logic mathematics), and so those 2 the ‘language of those languages’ and the forms better observed by human beings, biology and the social sciences derived from its laws as we are biological beings, should dominate physical sciences plagued of errors of anthropomorphism that denies sentient, biological, organic and casual patterns tot he Universe. and its Œ-points and it is riddle with uncertainties by excess of information (lower scales) or lack of it (upper cosmological planes).
We shall do here a brief survey, widened in the 4th line, with the linguistic method, studied the œ-mental properties, S-patial symmetries, T-emporal ages, and ternary 5D structures with the simplest possible structure, analyzing together the evolution in 5D complexity and evolutionary ages of all biological species, telling the tale of creation of man from the simplest ternary structures of carbon-life in space:
O(SE)<C(ST)>N(TO), made of Oxygen, energetic, Carbon structural body and Nitrogen, perceptive head (time clock systems)…
To the social organisms of mankind, studied in greater detail in the next posts made of To(political, legal) < ST (economic) < Se (Gaia) systems, where man is the neuronal brain of the body of Gaia and its economic networks.
SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF LIFE: TOPOLOGIES & AGES
In the graph, the 4 basic molecules of life, CO2, H20, CH4, (Methane) and NH3 (Ammonia) adopt the same efficient st-morphologies that crystals have with a central, informative atom surrounded by submissive, spatial Hydrogens that process and send to the center Van der Waals flows of information and Entropy.
Topology: from C, O, H atoms to amino acids.
In the smallest scale the molecular ‘bricks of life’, CO2, H20, CH4, (Methane) and NH3 (Ammonia), shown in the graph are, as it happens in the geological world, crystalline structures. Yet they are far more malleable and complex than solid crystals, because they exist in liquid ecosystems. In those simple life molecules Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen are the Top predator central atoms that capture and surround themselves with weaker Hydrogen atoms, which act as carriers of their relative Entropy and information, creating the external ‘membrane’ of their molecular structure with the dominant atoms as the central st-point. Let us consider those functional forms in more detail:
- ∆-1 scale of ‘bits and bites’: Hydrogen atoms act either as the basic bite of Entropy, in its H+ form, becoming the pumping bomb of most cellular motions. So in the energetic reactions of AMP<->ATP, H+ ions act as the bomb. So they do in the motion of protein rotors in membranes. They are used by Oxygens in COOH groups that kick water molecules and set carbohydrates in motion. Thus they act as an energetic limb that the oxygen atom expels or attracts in alternating cycles that displace the molecule through water.
- When attached to atomic structures, CH1,2,3 or NH1,2,3 systems in amino acids and nucleotides the H atoms should act as ‘feelers’ that integrate electromagnetic messages in a first ‘electronic orbital’, which should allow the central P.O.V. to ‘sense’, processing electromagnetic Entropy into Van der Waal forces of information Thus the simplest organic molecules studied as st-Points have:
– ∆-scale: A top predator N, O, C atom occupies an hyperbolic center, surrounded by Hydrogens, which form their bodies and limbs that process the Entropy of the water medium (Max.E), in which the molecule lives, or creating for the central atoms of life a molecular, external ‘electronic orbital cloud’, which acts both as the ‘energetic membrane’ of the atom and redirects the information of the external world, that will become the virtual world of the central atom, as regular ‘crystals’ do with their submissive atoms.
In the next scale of social organization those 3 elemental particles of life, N, C, and O will become themselves the 3 fundamental zones of bigger ‘i points’, called organic molecules:
Those 3 organic atoms define the 3 dimensional arrows of time in life organisms:
-O is the atom of energetic motion, given its high electronegativity that allows it to attract and repel other atoms with easiness, and its dual H-valences, which conform a lineal topology normally with a single H feeler and the second valence used to join the Carbon chain. Further on it tends to appear in the alkaline, ‘attractive’, ‘positive’, informative, 7.2 PH of the cell – natural to all implosive, informative systems, charged with ‘negative’, expansive topology.
– C, the atom of structural reproduction, as it has 4 handles for further union. It tends to appear neutral, as it corresponds to ‘body-systems’ that combine an informative, implosive, positive topology and one energetic, expansive, negative (in ionic terms). As most bodies is ‘blind’ mainly connected to other inner body-head-limbs part of the molecular organism, or a ‘bilateral’ H, deploying in amino acids the ‘width’ dimension.
– N, the atom of information, which appears in the 7.2 PH of cells and the head of amino acids as a positive, informative, NH+3 head, with 3 dimensional hydrogen slave atoms that carry the ‘bites and bits’ of Entropy and information to the nitrogen.
Let us then consider those 3 atoms and some of its functions in bigger carbohydrate chains.
– Max.I: The informative element of all life molecules and fractal part of its relative ‘heads’ are Nitrogen atoms. Its informative character is shown already in the crystalline ammonia, where Nitrogen is the dominant vertex of a tetrahedron shaped with 3 more Hydrogens. Since we live in a 3-dimensional world, those 3 arrows allow the Nitrogen to have a more perfect informative ‘perception’ of the world we live than the scarce, lineal perception of the Hydrogen, or neutral bilateral structure of C-chains. According to its informative function, ammonia is a perfect atomic clock in which the Nitrogen vibrates constantly back and forth through the hole shaped by its 3 hydrogen ‘eyes’, with an informative cycle of +1016 times a second. The first atomic clocks were in fact based in that simple molecule due to the accuracy and speed of frequency of its temporal vibration, which in life molecules allows NH+3 heads to ‘inform itself’ and regulate with its cyclical clock motions the ‘guided motions’ of the ‘carbon’ body and Oxygen legs of the molecule.
– Tiƒ≈Spe: The structural atom that creates the rigid body structures of life molecules is the carbon atom. It has the maximal number of valences – 4 orbitals that create dual bondages with 2 other carbons – constructing long, formal ternary chains of great structural rigidity. As such it is the most visible, intermediate form of all life compounds. And so biologists, due to its ‘visibility’, have traditionally considered it the ‘fundamental element of life’. When we ad Hydrogen atoms to complete its ‘crystalline’ body we obtain methane the simplest molecule of life. Then when we join 2 carbons with dual bondage, we form ethane, which already acts as a hormone, (±reproductive molecule) inhibiting the structural growth of plants.
– Max. E: Finally, the Entropy of life systems is water, which fills the ‘external world’ in which life feeds and internally becomes in complex living organisms called cells, the filling Entropy of the intermediate space, enclosed between its carbon-based protein & fat walls and the inner, informative, nitrogen-rich, ADN hyperbolic singularity. Water is the simplest, most abundant ternary molecule of the Universe, made with 2 slave hydrogens and 1 dominant oxygen – the atom that has the maximal ‘electro-negativity’ after fluorine. Thus, oxygen can capture the electronic body of any other atom. That is why the oxygen components of carbohydrates enact its energetic cycles, moving those organic molecules within the water ecosystem. Since they stomp on water, breaking it and creating expansive and implosive 0H–, H± ions that impulse the molecule; as you walk on the floor, ‘stomping’ on the electromagnetic fields of the ground or as a fish moves, hitting the water with its tail.
The proportion of the 3 atoms in living systems reinforces this classification, according to the GST proportions between the ‘Entropy, body, head’ classes. For example in a human being the proportions are: 67%, O+H molecules and atoms, 23% C+H molecules and atoms and 6.5% Nitrogen+H systems, which are in the usual range of ±2/3rd of Entropy components, -1/4th of body components, and -1/10th of head bits, proper of most systems in the Universe.
We could also consider as essential atoms, the carriers of neuronal orders, the implosive, positive, informative Ca2+, K+ and Na+ ions, which again form a triplet of diminishing ‘informative power’ and define the potentials of electricity between neurons and the rest of submissive cells and so add up to a 2.1% of human body mass. If we add it to the 6.5% of Nitrogen brings the number to 8.6% of mass, closer to a -1/10th per cent of the informative ‘class’ of all organisms.
Those and other oligo-elements, of a higher scale of atomic complexity are essential to mark the ‘differences’ of power of certain molecular systems ‘pumped up’ in Entropy or information by their addition. Most of them however have an ‘energetic’ role (iron in heme groups and cytochromes, copper in reptiles, Magnesium in chlorophyll, phosphor attached to oxygens in AMP systems, Cl– to balance the K+ electronic bomb and S with 2 valences in anaerobic breathing and some molecular bridges.
This responds to a fundamental law of all efficient, healthy organisms, which is to maintain the informative, atomic, head structure of the system pure, without ‘leukemia’, without the interference of an alien language to the system. Since the main sickness of systems is to become trapped by an alien informative species, for whom they will enslave, as it happens when viruses substitute cellular DNA by their own. This is exactly what humans have failed to accomplish when they substituted their natural, biological, verbal, ethic language by gold hypnotism, an informative language of metal whose values are against those of life and have completely changed the route of history.
Recap. Nitrogen heads, carbon bodies and oxygen Entropy create the simplest life beings, amino acids…
Topology: From carbohydrates to cells.
In the next graph, the glycine is the simplest active life form with 3 st-zones:
– Max.I: The nitrogen head directs the glycine.
– Tiƒ≈Spe: A dual carbon creates the first rigid ‘membrane-body’ of life with its strong, covalent bondage, joining the head and tail:
– Max. E: Its oxygen COOH tail ‘walks’ on the water, breaking, attracting and repelling its OH-, H+ radicals.
Amino acids show their complex, reproductive and social arrows, catalyzing through their movements the replication of new amino acids and forming social chains, called proteins.
The inverse properties of st-amino heads and e-oxygen tails make possible the creation of long chains of amino acids in which their nitrogen heads bite their oxygen tails becoming neutralized as part of a complex social structure: the protein.
The nucleotide improves upon the amino head, carbohydrate body and oxygen legs of the amino acid, adding to those 3 lineal forms a dimension of informative height; as latter will occur in macro-organisms, when flat worms become cylindrical. So the amino acid head becomes a dual nitrogen ring, the body becomes a sugar and the tail multiplies its oxygens around a highly electronegative Phosphoric acid. The outcome is a nucleotide acid (right side of next graph) – the top predator life molecule, which evolves socially all others into the next st-scale of life, the cell.
The 3×3+(∆+1) horizons of social evolution of life.
Biological organisms, as physical organisms did in their growth from atoms to galaxies, evolved in 3×3 horizons of increasing social complexity creating the 3 ±i scales of life: the age of molecules, the age of cells and the age of multi-cellular organisms, specialized in Entropy (plants) or information (animals).
Let us study those ages in more detail, further differentiating them in 3 sub-ages according to the Ternary principle.
Since if we apply the law of the 3±∆ Ages to organic molecules we can explain how they grew in informative complexity and spatial size till acquiring the form of living organisms, in a process similar to the evolution of particles that created the cosmological bodies of the Universe.
Those 3±∆ evolutionary ages of life, each one sub-divided in 3±∆ sub-horizons, are: the young age of molecules, the mature, longest age of cells and the ‘recent’ age of living organisms, which will end with the creation of a global single organism, Planet Earth (∆+1):
The 3±∆ ages of molecules.
– ∆-1: The atomic age: the simplest chemical molecules of life are formed. The 3 simple atoms and molecules of life recombined its energetic, reproductive and information functions and grew, forming bigger chains thanks to its atomic affinity, acquiring more complex ‘vital properties’. The simplest combination of them, the CNO molecule, urea, is considered the first molecule of life and its ‘crystallization’ in a lab, departing from non-living atoms, was considered the birth of biochemistry and the prove that life is an atomic system that shares the same properties of any other TiƒxSpe system of the Universe.
– Max. E: The Entropy age, dominated by lineal, long, simple fats, huge carbon chains with oxygens attached to its ends.
– <=>: The amino acid age: COOH, methane and ammonia, the 3 simplest life molecules of the triad of life atoms, O, C, N, combine as the relative Entropy, reproductive and informative organs of amino acids. Amino acids reproduce exponentially in the primordial organic water soup and evolve socially into proteins.
– Max.I: The nucleotide age. Nucleotides, the informative molecules of the life, add an informative dimension of height to lineal amino acids, forming nitrogen and sugar rings. They dominate all other carbohydrates. Soon they will also evolve socially into huge chains called nucleic acids.
– ∆+1: Social age. Nucleic acids, the macromolecules of life with max. Exi force, integrate socially all other carbohydrates in herds of vital molecules, creating the cell, the following ∆-scale of life.
The 3±∆ ages of cells.
– ∆-1: The previous 3±∆ horizons of evolution of molecules brought the first cells.
– Max. E: The age of RNA Protista. The Entropy age of the cell is dominated by the simplest RNA Protista, whose ternary st-structure is based in: an external protein membrane; a series of ‘convex’ spiraled RNAs, the singularities that directs the cell, and an internal, intermediate water zone, the cytoplasm, where the cell reproduces its specific Entropy and information – thanks to the free ‘Entropy’ of water radicals – with the instructions given by those RNAs. Those Protista reproduce massively, exhausting the organic elements of the life soup. Then it comes:
– <=>: The Age of DNA Protista. It is the balanced, mature age of Protista. Dual RNAs peg together to form informative DNA rings, which store new genetic information that permits further growth and differentiation of Protista, according to new, improved 3 st-regions:
Entropy membranes invaginate the cell with a tubular network, the Golgi apparatus and protect the still DNA with a differentiated nucleus membrane; while new, specialized organelles perform the Entropy and information processes of the intermediate zone, creating reproductive Mitochondria and Chloroplasts.
– Max.I: Informative age and differentiation: The Eukaryotic age. Informative DNA cells multiply its genetic memories, while RNAs differentiate into a triad of forms that increase in the intermediate space-time the reproduction of membranes and proteins, creating giant cells. They cannibalize and enslave smaller, symbiotic cells, specialized in the dual arrow of Entropy, (mitochondria and chloroplasts) and information (ribosomes). Those who absorb chloroplasts become algae; those who feed on mitochondria become animals.
– ∆+1: The biggest eukaryote animals are amoeboid cells that evolve faster, informative, electronic languages using heavier metal ions, K* and Na–, to send their messages to other cells through their membranes. The nervous language allows simultaneous cellular actions, creating mobile multicellular organisms called animals. While slower chemical languages that use ‘hormonal vowels7’ put together unicellular algae into plants.
Let us consider the evolution of animals:
3±∆ horizons of evolution of animals: network’s organisms:
– ∆-1: Conception. Electric cells create multicellular organisms in control of all other cells, gathering in 3 physiological networks – neuronal, muscular and glandular=digestive systems that perform the informative, reproductive and energetic cycles of the organism as a macro-living st-point. The sequential dominance of those physiological networks creates the 3 ages of life – the energetic youth, reproductive maturity and informative old age – and the 3 horizons of evolution or ‘main phyla’ of multicellular animals.
– Max. E: The Entropy system -a central digestive tube- dominates the 1st horizon of multicellular organisms, occupying the central zone in 3 sub horizons of formal evolution: the age of sponges, the age of hydras and the age of worms, the first bilateral animals created around a tubular, lineal digestive system that moves in the dimension of length.
– <=>: Worms develop blood networks based in metallic carbohydrates that carry to each cell of the body its oxygen Entropy, food quanta and the dual hormonal orders of the brain: reproductive orders and ‘killing orders’ performed by amoeboid leukocytes. Thus, as blood networks increase the efficient control of fractal cells, animals grow in size, starting an age of massive sea life speciation. Today we still have 90% of the genes of those worms.
– Max.I: Life jumps a fundamental discontinuum, when the first mollusks become insects and the first fishes become amphibians, colonizing the Earth. Their sensorial and nervous systems become overdeveloped in the new environment that has a higher transparency to informative light. Land animals specialize their 3 networks to the new medium in 3 sub-ages: the age of amphibians, which still reproduce in water, the age of reptiles and the age of birds and mammals, dominant in visual and nervous systems that ends with the arrival of Homo Sapiens.
– ∆+1: Homo sapiens develops a new informative language, the word, evolving into historic super-organisms, civilizations and economic ecosystems that grow in size till reaching a global dimension.
Recap. Biological organisms evolved in 3 horizons of increasing social complexity creating the 3 ±i scales of life: the age of molecules, the age of cells and the age of multi-cellular organisms, specialized in Entropy (plants) or information (animals).
The Entropy age: 3±∆ Simple molecules.
In the graph, a glycine, the simplest ‘organism’ of life or amino acid with its self-similar form to a small mammal, with a nitrogen head, a carbon body and its oxygen legs. And the two fundamental species of complex molecular life: a nucleotide, dominant in information, attached to a sugar body and phosphoric acid and the detail of a protein body; the most reproduced species of the system. Lineal fats that store Entropy become the 3rd essential topology of cellular life.
The first age in the evolution of life is the age of simple molecules. Water became an organic soup filled with ammonia and simple chains of carbon, among which we highlight:
– Max.E: Acids and fats. They are headless, without nitrogen heads – a long, lineal limb of energetic carbons with oxygen legs on its extremes. They will become the fundamental Entropy of cells.
– Max.I: Sugars add an informative, cyclic dimension to headless fats. They are carbohydrate hexagons evolved socially in long chains, through oxygen connections, called polysaccharides.
Amino acids: TiƒxSpe functions and evolution into proteins
The 3 life molecules, ammonia, methane and water, create the spatial structure of glycine, the simplest amino acid which resembles an animal, with the positive charged nitrogen head (amine), the negative charged Oxygen tail (carboxyl), and a carbon body chain that fusions together the 2 extremes, creating the i-logic ‘generator equation’ of amino acids:
Oxygen legs(E) <Carbon body (TiƒxSpe)> (I) Nitrogen head.
st-points adapt their morphology to the dimensions and directional movement of their specific environment. Thus, while a still cell is cyclical, moving life molecules are lineal forms in which the nitrogen ‘head’ is upfront to absorb information & Entropy in the direction of movement; the structural carbon membrane is in the center; and the Entropy cycles are performed by the oxygen tail that moves on the water:
– Max.I: Informative cycles are directed by its ammonia ‘clock’. Nitrogen vibrates across its Hydrogen triangle, perceiving and transferring electromagnetic information elaborated as Van der Wall forces to its carbon body that orientates the molecule in a chosen direction.
– Tiƒ≈Spe: Reproductive and social cycles: A rigid carbon chain can peg to its sides by affinity (3rd postulate of i-logic geometry) other carbon structures that latter might split, reproducing new glycine or might stick together, shaping new species of amino acids.
-Max.E: Entropy Cycles: The oxygen moves the molecule, propelled by the dual polarity of water.
– Social and Transcendental cycles: Their social evolution gives birth to macro-molecular proteins.
– Existential, generational cycles: The purpose of those molecules is to exist, performing their organic cycles.
Thus, after the birth of amino acids, Earth witnessed a massive replication of glycine, which soon diversified in all kind of sub-species that pegged to the original glycine new pieces of carbohydrates bodies, nitrogen eyes and oxygen legs. Thus the organic soup became an ecosystem of top predator amino acids that catalyzed the reproduction of new amino acids, absorbing the simpler molecular ‘nutrients’, till amino acids saturated the Earth’s oceans. Then those different amino acids associated in complementary st-herds, in which specialization occurred again, as some amino acids were designed better to gather Entropy with extra oxygen legs; some had extra nitrogen heads to process information and some were long carbon chains better suited to split, peg and reproduce new amino acid pieces. Thus we can easily classify amino acids as informative amino acids, with ring structures filled with Nitrogens; energetic amino acids, with added Oxygens – Phosphors and sulfurs, atoms with high ‘electro negativity’ that are able to capture energetic electrons; and reproductive amino acids with long carbon chains.
Social evolution of amino acids: the protein age.
Amino acids in their social stage of evolution became, according to the inverse morphological isomorphisms of transcendental evolution, the ‘relative Entropy’ of new macro-molecular proteins. So they lost its ‘active’ heads and tails, pegged now to each other, as the ‘fixed’ neutralized st-points of the protein’s spiral structure; where the active parts are radicals joined to the central carbon of the amino acid. Those bulky, seemingly unnecessary radicals that hindered the motions of free amino acids show its true value in proteins. (This often happens in evolution, which requires first mutational, inefficient stages that reorganize into functional macro-systems thanks to the directed ternary systems created by fast, planned evolution. If all were chaotic, slow Darwinian mutations most mutations would not survive long enough to transcend into useful new organs, as Darwin already noticed it, studying wing evolution. Thus transitional stages are a proof of ‘∆-volution’.)
Proteins are huge carbon chains that fusion the fractal actions of those radicals with many oxygen legs and a few nitrogen eyes into a simultaneous present of Max.IxE force. They are like centipedes, entities with simple perception but a fearsome Entropy that allows proteins to cut and kill all the micro-molecules of the life ecosystem. So they became the new top predators of the original carbon soup, probably chasing down free amino acids to replicate themselves.
Finally, lineal proteins evolved further, according to the inverse isomorphisms of transcendental, social evolution, forming self-replicating hollow membranes with cyclical, still forms, which nucleic acids will latter fill and dominate, creating cells. Indeed, the protein’s simple minds made their top predator status short living when the 3rd informative horizon of molecular life, the nucleotide, evolved.
Informative age: Nitrogen bases and Nucleotide acid.
In the previous graph, we show the final, informative age of life molecules, which occurred when the amino acid evolved its lineal, simplex 3 st-regions adding a new, informative dimension and creating the 3 globular zones of the nucleotide:
– Max. Tiƒ≈Spe: The improved body is called a sugar that has, instead of the carbohydrate’s zigzag line proper of amino acid bodies, a pentagonal form, a powerful compact body cycle that appears in all scalar morphologies. Further on, the sugar pentagon adds one lateral oxygen’s rudder that can chain or unchain itself to other sugar rings through easy to break oxygen bridges. So the reproductive speed of the new nucleotide’s body based in the capacity to peg and split its body increases.
– Max. E: A nucleotide tail adds up a highly energetic, phosphoric acid (PO4H3) that has more oxygens than the amino acid’s original COOH tail and so it swims better in water. The heavier phosphor is also a nitrogen-friendly atom, from the same 3-5 valence electronic column. So the head improves its control of the tail and its energetic oxygen atoms.
– Max.I: Finally the Nucleotides’ heads add up new nitrogens, creating cyclical, hexagonal rings, called Pyrimidines, which once more diversify in 3 subspecies: Thymine, Uracil or Cytosine…
– Uracil is lighter. So it is the brick for building highly mobile social nucleotides called RNAs.
– Thymine is heavier, since it has one more carbon, while Cytosine adds Nitrogen with 2 Hydrogen ‘antennae’. So they are the bricks of DNA, the most informative, still molecule of life.
Finally the most complex nucleotide heads are Purines: dual, pentagonal and hexagonal nitrogen rings, joined by a strong covalent C=C wall that form dual couples, called Adenine and Guanine, which add an external nitrogen antenna with 2 Hydrogen eyes to probe the unknown world.
So the globular structure of Nucleotides also creates more evolved social forms, the RNA and DNA acids that will control protein membranes in the cellular scale.
If structural bodies dominate amino acids and proteins, the dominant element in Nucleotides are their nitrogen heads. They become the unit of the social, informative languages of cells, playing a key role in all their informative tasks, as the main elements of most hormones and the fractal units of macro-molecular DNAs, which will create the higher, cellular scale of life forms.
Bases express the 4 arrows of time in life. Some basic rules
Now we have come to a key element of the program of life, the existence of 4 based, which will codify the creation of superorganisms of cells. Why? We have again and again show that each super organism requires a language able to express the 3+1 arrows/dimension of space-time existence, the program or will of the Universe. It is easy then to observe that the 4 bases represent a new whole game of existence, as the 4 dimensions of space-time do or the 4 quantum numbers, or the 4 drives of life, and since function is form, just looking at those bases we can deduce that:
The simplex arrows are expressed by simplex Pyrimidines (single cycle)
- Uracil and thymine with more oxygen are the energetic drive expression and complex genetics show this to be the case, as they are more abundant in functions and genes related to energetic systems.
- Their informative head is adenine and as such is the dominant base of the system. It has a Nitrogen higher mass and a nitrogen head with 2 antennae. It is the head of the ATP systems that command as small molecules the game of proteins and most orders of actions in the cell. Both the simplex body T and head A assembly together by affinity and complementarity
The complex arrows are expressed by dual Nitrogen cycles:
- Cytosine is the balanced dual molecule. Hence the reproductive arrow. And indeed, when it is uncovered in the DNA loosing its cover it allows the expression of genes.
- Guanine is therefore the 4th social arrow and the base that brings the next scale.
This simple scheme of the 4 dimensions of life languages is determinant for fully understanding the whys of genetics, which now are only described at the level of the 3rd paradigm (how-description).
Example: Receptors of complex, external orders.
Consider the case of the GDP and GTP molecules. Their function is essential to the transmission of orders from the higher scale of neuro-hormonal messages that regulate the superorganisms of cells. 60 % of all external signals to cells are transferred through the activity of Guanine, the social nucleotide, activated through the G-protein channel. As such the GDP/GTP molecule is the ‘boss’ of intercellular communication, as the ATP molecule is the boss of energetic communication.
The ATP in fact in conjunction with the energetic Tyr amino acid (with an extra oxygen), and the energetic Phosphor atom, works with the second most common membrane messenger, after the G-protein channel, two poles that become activated by phosphorilization, bringing to them ‘hungry’ proteins that become energized and provoke signals for energetic and reproductive arrows. (Remember that simplex informative and complex social evolution are the two related arrows of temporal information, most associated, and the complex reproductive and simplex energetic arrows are the tandem associated to energetic space). Thus the receptor called Tirosincinasa is also related to the cinasas, which are the enzymes that provoke the energetic mitosis and death of the cell. This examples shows how the emergence of the properties of smaller scales are always transcendental, social evolutions of one of the 4 arrows of time, the will or program of the Universe that maintains the self-similarity of scales.
Let us consider the ternary differentiation of this molecule, ATP, as it is the key to the energetic force that propels and makes possible the cell.
The age of nucleotides: ternary differentiation of species.
So after the age of Amino acids and proteins, there was an age of Nucleotides, which differentiated again according to duality in 2 subspecies: One rich in Entropy, the other richer in information:
– Max. E: The energetic Nucleotides are ATPs, the key molecules in all energetic life processes. Breathing and feeding could not happen without ATP, the specialized Entropy Nucleotide that again subdivides in 3 subspecies, which can be identified as the energetic, balanced and informative ATP:
– Max. E: ATP proper – an Adenine nucleotide with a longer tail with 3 Phosphors and 10 oxygens, ordered in a classic decametric, 3×3+(∆+1) scale: each phosphor controls 3 oxygens, and the 10th oxygen connects them to the sugar body.
– Tiƒ≈Spe: ADP, which has lost 1 phosphor and 4 oxygens (an HPO3 molecule) releasing in the process 34 KJ of Entropy, balancing its form with less Entropy but the same Nitrogen information.
-Max.I: AMP, which has lost another HPO3, becoming a cyclical molecule, since the phosphoric tail touches its nitrogen head. So it acts in cellular processes as an informative carrier, transferring hormonal information, amplifying it and programming the cell’s nucleus with that information.
– Max.I: The informative, social evolution of nucleotide acids gives birth to RNA and DNA.
Nucleotides evolve socially, becoming according to the isomorphisms of transcendental inversion between micro and macro planes (I∆-1=E∆), ‘Entropy cells’ of RNA and DNA spirals, grouped again in triads that form a spiral cycle. Those triplets surrounded by energetic ATPs create genetic scales in groups of 3, 9, 27…
Those 3n elements in turn will shape the structure of 2 new macro-molecular informative species, differentiated according to the TiƒxSpe complementary, dual principle:
– Max. E: Lineal, moving RNAs that carry the actions of the cells, again differentiated in:
– Max. E: Ribosomal RNA joined to energetic proteins that peg the carbohydrate’s pieces.
– Tiƒ≈Spe: Transfer RNA that carries the fractal units that reproduce carbohydrates.
– Max.I: Messenger RNA that copies DNA information and takes it to the Ribosome.
– Max.I: Cyclical, still, informative DNA, made with 2 complementary RNAs, which carries so much informative, genetic information about the metabolic and reproductive cycles of all other carbohydrates that will become the ‘brain’ of the new scale of life, the cell… The nucleotide structure of DNA shows the magic ‘tetraktys’ that fascinated Pythagoras: 1, 2, 3, 4 dimensions that add up into a decametric scale. Indeed, 1 DNA made with 2 RNA chains joined by nucleotide pairs form a structural tie of DNA; 3 nucleotides form the basic informative ‘gene’ to create amino acids; and 4 dimensional bases is all what it is needed to create all the cycles and elements of the cellular game.
Those 3 type of molecular ‘ages’ will become then the 3 ‘topological’ st-forms of the cell: amino-acids become the Entropy bites of the cells along with water, its medium; proteins will create the walls reproduced in its organelles and nucleotide acids will become the informative, perceptive species that run the show.
Recap. The evolution of life molecules took life through its first 3 ages, the age of amino acids, the age of proteins and the age of Nucleotides, the informative, hyperbolic species that will reorganize them all to create the cell.
The social evolution of macromolecules into the cell.
The Ternary Principle diversifies species and then combines them. So methane, Ammonia and Water combine to give either an informative Carbonamide or an energetic alcohol. Both are evolved finally into a carbon-acid.
Both species again mix in balanced amino acids, to further increase their information and Entropy tendencies adding new Informative nitrogens (bases, porphyries), or adding Oxygen legs (sugars, lipids). The balanced combination, the amino acid with two oxide legs, and one Nitrogen head, evolves into the next level of macromolecules, the proteins.
On the other hand nitrogen bases keep evolving in social rings; while acids add a macro-atom of enormous energetic power, Phosphor to improve its Entropy abilities. Finally sugars form with oxygen polysaccharides.
We have 3 species of macro-molecules in a new E-TiƒxSpe-I game:
– Macromolecules of enormous capacity as Entropy, the Phosphoric acid and other long acid systems (sugars, lipids).
– Macromolecules with structural versatility: proteins.
– Macromolecules of high informative capacity, RNAs and DNAs.
They are the 3 specialized molecules that give birth to the new plane of social existence, that of the DNA-cell.
∆+1: The macromolecules of the 3 previous horizons, guided by the genetic, informative language of nucleotides, transcend socially into the cell; a st-point, in which they will play the same specialized roles they played in the macro-molecular age, creating the 3 st-specialized zones of a bigger, fractal plane of existence:
– Max. E: The external membrane, inner invaginations and cilia are the energetic borders of the cell controlled by lineal proteins, intertwined with long, energetic chains of fats and sugars called polysaccharides, hyper-abundant in oxygen. Proteins become 3-dimensionally warped as units of the spherical membrane with globular, inverse morphologies due to the law of transcendental evolution that transforms the morphology of a form in its inverse form, when it transcends into a higher scale ∑(E∆-1=I∆). Among those inner invaginations we highlight lysosomes, smaller protein jails that store the excess of energetic fats and sugars, kill carbohydrates or eject them outside the membrane.
Tiƒ≈Spe: The intermediate region reproduces the cells’ Entropy and information: energetic chloroplasts and mitochondria provide electronic Entropy needed to perform the moving cycles of the cell; while informative ribosomes create the materials needed to maintain the membrane and nucleus.
– Max.I: The inner nucleus is the informative center of the cell, filled with cyclical, informative DNA macromolecules and 3 lineal sub-species of RNA, which perform together the orders of the still, DNA brain, creating a simultaneous herd of Max. I x Max. E force that rules all other symbiotic elements of the cell. RNAs control proteins, which act thanks to its energetic strength as the body element of all cells, shaping their hard membranes, killing other carbohydrates and transporting RNAs’ hormonal sentences throughout the organism.
To reinforce their control of those proteins the first RNAs herds might have killed all those amino acids and proteins they did not need. So today there are only 20 surviving amino acids, all oriented towards the left side. Why? According to the multifunctional principle we can consider 3 reasons:
– 20 amino acids form the magic number of 2×10 couples, which allows an efficient division of energetic, informative and reproductive tasks, without redundancy.
– A single orientation in space-time allows all those amino acids to act simultaneously together, multiplying its TiƒxSpe power as a herd, without anyone ‘giving the back’ to the group.
– Since the most efficient reproductive system is the specular, sexual method, in which 2 complementary inverse morphologies gather together, a carbohydrate chain could replicate, as DNA does, by specular affinity, attaching parallel forms to its body structure, creating its specular image twice. So if an L amino acid replicates a D amino acid (a macho replicates a female so to speak), and then the D amino acid replicates an L amino acid , the system becomes a self-reproducing amino acid, free from RNA control. By avoiding the reproduction of D amino acids, nucleic acids control the creation of ‘castrated’ amino acids and proteins. So Nucleic acids probably extinguished D-amino acids to control better the castrated proteins of their cellular farm. Humans also castrate tamed animals; yet amazingly enough they are researching self-reproductive nano-robotic bacteria that might extinguish us, forgetting that reproductive control is a basic tool of any biological top predator.
Recap. Cells are made of energetic amino acids, reproductive proteins that form membranes and informative nucleotides, enclosed in its nuclei.
Youth Horizon: From Prokaryote to Eukaryotic cells.
The previous description of the evolution of molecules requires to change the ‘chip’ of the scientist and accept the tenants of organicism in simple atoms; which so far science has only, according to the Galilean paradox of self-centered perception, accepted for the next scale of life – the cell.
At the beginning cells, called monera, did not have a differentiated nucleus membrane, which means their informative singularity was mainly moving RNA. As evolution continued through the dual/ternary differentiations proper of all TiƒxSpe systems, RNAs split accordingly in 3 sub-species to carry out the specialized Entropy, informative and reproductive tasks of protein control, carbohydrate production and self-replication, through complementary, inverse, specular translation. Then, one RNA, which produced a specular image of itself, probably got pegged to that image and became ‘fixed’, as a still, dual DNA, an informative mirror of an RNA molecule, geared to reproduce it. Accordingly those first DNA molecules acquired the cyclical ring form they still have in all monera.
Soon the extraordinary reproductive growth of DNA cells made them giant cells that exhausted their trophic nutrients. So finally they cannibalized other cells to maintain that reproductive growth. First those cells would be killed and their nutrients absorbed but then some very efficient energetic and informative cells would become slaves within the cell ‘farm’ in a process repeated in all ∆-scales: first top predators are hunters but then informative top predators create farms. So worm holes use herds of stars to absorb intergalactic dust; men use dogs to herd sheep; and monera cells used ribosomes to reproduce informative molecules and mitochondria to absorb Entropy, forming the first macro-cells. Those who ‘ate up’ mitochondria, which produce Entropy from carbohydrate products, would become animal cells and kept hunting other cells to find semi-elaborated nutrients. Those who ‘ate up’ chloroplasts, which produce Entropy from small carbohydrates and light, would become plant cells.
Now the quantity of DNA in the cell grew to add up the DNA of those organelles and its variety of cyclical memories was so vast that it had to pack itself further, changing its bidimensional, cyclical form into a 3 dimensional spiral, and acquiring structures of energetic sustain: proteins that coiled around DNA and a nucleus with differentiated walls that surrounded DNAs. The age of eukaryotic, gigantic cells had started.
Recap. As information multiplied in simple cells, the RNA age gave way to the DNA age whose extra-genetic code should control the evolution of complex multi-cellular structures.
The vital cycles of the cell.
The cell is a brain-body system constructed with 2 elements, nucleotide acids, based in nitrogen bases and protein bodies based in carbon chains, which are the informative and spatial systems of the cell. Around that TiƒxSpe core duality we find an expansive intermediate, cyclical region with all kind of slavish organelles that perform their Entropy cycles (based in the energetic properties of oxygen, water and similar electronegative atoms); and their informative cycles. Both cycles are catalyzed by denser metal atoms that boost the E/I capacities of carbohydrates. Thus, through the interaction of carbohydrates, metallic ions, proteins and nucleotide acids, cells perform the 3±∆ cycles of all st-points:
Max.E: In an organism, Mg, copper and iron capture oxygen and deliver it to each cell to perform energetic cycles; while in the cell cytochromes kill and split the energetic hydrogen atom into H+ and e– ions in mitochondria or chloroplasts; absorbing its spatial Entropy; while metal atoms stabilize protein enzymes.
Max.I: Na and K ions control the expansive and implosive rhythms of the electric membrane, sending informative messages among cells -while RNA and DNA molecules process information within the cell, reproducing new carbohydrate molecules.
– The combined effect of the accumulation of Entropy and information within the cell triggers the reproductive cycle, guided by RNA and DNA molecules.
– ∑: Cells evolve socially into macro-organisms. Yet only the RNA-DNA system creates complex informative, control networks.
– ±i: Cells live a generational cycle chained to an organism that kills them ‘periodically’, or as free cells that die when captured by top predator living beings. Since most cells can be immortal if no other system kills or controls them hierarchically.
All those cellular cycles are not ‘mechanic processes’ but they have evolved departing from the organic, dual, Darwinian and symbiotic interactions between proteins and nucleotide acids, the dominant energetic and informative macromolecules of cells. The most important cycle is the reproductive cycle, which in the cell as in other fractal space-time represents the existential will that ensures the perpetuation of the species. Let us consider it.
Recap. Cells follow the same arrows of existence of all st-points.
The reproductive cycle.
The interphase, prophase, anaphase and telophase complete the reproduction of the cell, in which the centriole, a perfect example of a decametric structure, with 9×2 lineal proteins and a central 2×1 nucleus that controls the lower scale of 9 forms, plays the key energetic role of motion control.
The phases of reproduction of a cell called mitosis (I, 6, 25), are in fact its death period, that lasts the shorter period of the daily life of a cell. It is the genius of the cell to use its death period to split and renew itself by the arrow of reproduction. Yet it can still be defined as a death period, which always means that the E/I fields of the system reverse in time, the energetic, destructive arrow dominates and ends up dissolving and splitting the complex informative brain. So in the cell you can see mitosis as the sudden dominance of the lineal, protein, killing centrioles which are reproduced in excess at the end of the S2 phase or 3rd age of the cells, both at the lower molecular scale (assembly of ctk enzymes) and at cellular scale (centrioles and spindle) and then attack and break in two the chromosomes:
The reproductive cycle of cells shows an evolutionary pattern observed in many dual cycles between 2 complementary st-points of relative Entropy and information, which first confront their energetic and informative inverse forms. But as time goes by often by chance they realize that social, complementary evolution is more efficient than Darwinian, energetic destruction. And so they end up evolving together, following the positive, creative arrow of the Universe. We can hypothesize according to that homology the 3 ages of evolution of the reproductive cycle:
– Energetic, unicellular age: Sexual reproduction probably started as a Darwinian, energetic process of hunting in which lineal, energetic sperm killed the cyclical ovum and learned to host its DNA-code as virus do, in the ovum’s center. Yet as the sexual cycle evolved beyond the energetic, young age of the cycle, the ‘war of sexes’ ended and the cycle moved into a balanced 2nd age.
-Tiƒ≈Spe: Reproductive, ‘colonial age’. Now information was exchanged between both forms, the sperm and the ovum – since sexes are in fact a specialization of species into energetic males and informative females. And a new symbiotic dual form was born. Those forms would start reproductive radiations multiplying the number of cells. So probably sexual reproduction is a key factor in the multicellular explosion of the Cambric age.
– Informative, palingenetic age. Finally, in the 3rd age of sexual evolution the informative female species dominated the cycle, as females have more genetic code (2 complete X chromosomes) and control during pregnancy the reproductive, palingenetic cycle that brings the embryo into a new ‘macro-organic level of existence’. If we observe the family cycle of human couples, women also tend to dominate the couple in its 3rd longer age, as Proust already notice; since information lasts longer than Entropy in time.
In complex organisms a living, reproductive cycle is dual: it departs from the simplex reproduction of a single cell that multiplies. Then those self-similar cells suffer a complex process of palingenetic reproduction that recreates an organism made of billions of cells, departing from that single cell.
Cellular reproduction: a tug of war between DNA and proteins.
Let us consider in this synoptic paper, the simpler process of cellular reproduction, as we have treated palingenesis in our analysis of the 4th postulate of i-logic geometry:
Organic cells reproduce within a day, chained to the symbiotic daily feeding period of the organism that provides them with Entropy and information for that reproduction. Fractal cellular reproduction shows also that duality between positive, organic complementarity Vs. negative Darwinian struggle that either balances E-bodies and I-brains into organic systems or determines their mutual destruction when that balance is broken (death processes, Lorenz Transformations, etc.) In the reproductive cell cycle, the most efficient body proteins – lineal, tubular centrioles – and the top predator, informative DNAs enact an ambiguous struggle between their Darwinian desire of mutual destruction and their need of complementary evolution.
So cellular reproduction is a mixed cycle based in both kinds of relationships in which first the lineal species of cellular Entropy (centrioles, which are long (9+1) x 2 protein fibers with a perfect decametric structure), untie the cyclical species of pure information (DNAs), trying to split and kill them. Yet DNAs, once uncoiled, defend themselves ‘informatively’, creating a new membrane that breaks the centrioles apart into 2 groups, and also breaks the cell creating 2 new ones. We can distinguish several phases in that dual struggle, dominated alternately by each of those 2 forms that involve all the other elements of the cell, directed in their dance by those max.E x Max.I top predator elements or ‘upper classes’ of the cell. It will be a tug of war that illustrates all the geometrical strategies of Darwinian and complementary events between dynamic st-points:
-In the interphase, both top predator substances replicate. The centrioles are outside the membrane, which protects the DNA.
-In the prophase centrioles start their hunting: the protein’s membrane of the nucleus dissolves, exposing DNAs’ chromosomes that become visible preys. As all other universal preys do, from wriggling worms to high frequency rays, from submissive servants to herds of electrons in front of a quark or fishes in front of a shark, chromosomes try now to hide by coiling up, becoming contracted, shorter forms. Then the hunting starts. Centrioles have replicated and now double its fractal action, moving to both sides of the DNA nucleus, forming dual, long molecular chains joined by filaments. So they create a polar field of forces that captures in its filamentous web the self-replicated DNA, as a North and South Pole create together a magnetic force field that aligns atoms or two boats web a net to capture fishes.
-In the metaphase chromosomes defend themselves from the 2 centrioles that throw the ‘hooks’ of their force field, stretching the DNAs. But those chromosomes that have replicated in the earlier interphase evolve now socially in couples of parallel forms, increasing its fractal mass and moving away from the centrioles in a classic protective strategy: They arrange themselves in the equator of the spindle, adopting a Darwinian, perpendicular position, the farthest away from those centrioles. It is exactly the way in which diamagnetic particles that flee from magnetic fields, arrange themselves trying to receive the minimal quantity of force from the North and South Poles of the magnetic field.
-In the Anaphase centrioles counter-attack, splitting away the chromosome pairs.
In the telophase, DNAs find their winning, defensive strategy: They are the informative species that store the genetic code of all cellular forms. So DNAs start to reproduce new membranes in a frenzy till those membranes break the centrioles’ spindle through its middle zone, isolating each centriole and breaking their field of lineal, protein forces. Since lineal, energetic or reproductive beings, like centrioles or ‘magnetic’ fields are, cannot create monopoles. Only temporal, implosive, informative cyclical particles can do that. So the spindle dissolves and the new membrane divides the cell.
Now the system reaches again a balance, as the dual chromosomes and the dual centrioles become again single forms surrounded by a new membrane.
Thus the dynamic tug of war between a protein’s body and a nucleotide’s brain ends up in a draw, creating 2 cells instead of one, which will re-start after a rest period a new interphase process of protein and DNA reproduction. Since the Universe is indeed a game of reproductive radiations, the ultimate will of all beings that want to survive their fractal, periodic death by creating a self-similar ‘present’ form.
A variation of that process required in sexual reproduction, is called meiosis, in which the twin reproduction of DNA and its subsequent destruction of the nucleus’ membrane is provoked by the energetic sperm that enters the ovum, invading, as a virus does, its DNA nucleus and merging its genetic material. So, as it happens in the interphase of a cell, the fecundated sexual cell has 2 parallel quantities of DNA, albeit with different genetic material, coming from the ovule and the sperm. So as the replicating process repeats through the same phases of any cellular reproduction, the final result won’t be an identical cell but a cell that mixes the genes of both, the sperm and the ovum. When besides sexual duplication there is an interphase with chromosomal duplication the final 2 cells will be diploid cells with twice the genetic material of the original cell. This happens only in multicellular organisms, as redundant genetic material is useful to store genetic orders needed for the complex construction of multicellular structures; but it would be redundant in the simple life of a monera cell, which escapes the interphase duplication.
The TiƒxSpe duality of lineal sperm and cyclical ovum extends outside the realm of form and transcends to the upper scale of multi-cellular organisms and sexual characters: the ovum is an informative, cyclical, autotrophic female cell with higher chromosomal content; while sperm is an energetic, heterotrophic, lineal male cell with higher mobility. And we find according to the Fractal Principle, 3 evolutionary types of increasingly differentiated sexual cells: semen and ovum, which are equal in spatial size and temporal form (isogamy); semen that is equal in form but smaller than the ovum (anisogamy); and ovum and semen, which are different in spatial size and temporal form (oogamy), as in human beings.
Those differences between male sperm and female unicellular ovum, latter diluted as their genetic materials mix, reminds us of the differences between unicellular animal and plants, the main dual differentiation of life along its TiƒxSpe parameters that we will study now in more detail.
Recap. Sexual reproduction evolved from an energetic event in the unicellular age into a reproductive radiation and finally into the palingenetic process dominated by the ovum.
Cellular reproduction can be explained as a tug of war between the informative DNA and the reproductive proteins of the centrioles.
Ternary cell’s differentiation: plants, animals and fungi.
The kingdom of life shows in all its beauty the generic process of evolutionary differentiation of any space-time field, along the main 3±∆ dimensions, departing from a 1st singularity, which in the world of life is the Monera phylum – the initial cell, whose ternary differentiation gave birth to energetic plants, reproductive fungi and informative animals:
Max. E: Energetic plants use light as Entropy. Biologists talk of plants as autotrophic cells; still forms like the ovum, which create their Entropy and information quanta from light and water, in any place. So they made their membranes harder and thicker to maintain themselves centered in a territorial, discontinuous, vital space, regardless of what happens outside.
Max.I: Informative animals use light as information. Animals are heterotrophic, moving cells, which feed on other forms. Hence they developed thinner external membranes and cilia, which according to the multifunctional principle differentiated further into increasingly sophisticated sensorial antenna to localize their preys and lineal, moving engine with a master centriole – a ‘protein head’ on its base. So though in a 1st phase unicellular plants were more complex, animals ended up evolving greater quantities of inner, informative RNA-DNA to act-react faster in their unknown moving environments.
Tiƒ≈Spe: Reproductive fungi are organisms that have qualities belonging to both, the animal and plant kingdoms. Fungi feed on dead substances and survive thanks to their maximization of reproductive skills.6
The inverted forms and functions of plants and animals define both species as ‘antisymmetric systems’ ruled by their opposite diffeomorphic parameters of Entropy and information:
Their informative cycle and brain-body dimensions are inverted: plants have their brain down in the roots, since they use light as Entropy; animals have it on top, since they use light as information.
Their energetic cycles are inverted: plants breathe CO2 and produce oxygen; animals breathe oxygen and produce CO2. They also use carbohydrates in opposite ways, since plants foster constructive stillness and animals destructive movements: so plants make sugars the fixed structural element to construct cellulose and starch, their external membranes; while animals use sugar’s oxygen bonds breaking them to breath, liberate oxygen and move the body.
Their social and reproductive cycles are inverted: Animals are hierarchical organizations with a clear class division between informative, ‘upper class’ neuron networks and body cells, while plants are ‘democratic forms’ with minimal differentiation. So plants foster the spatial, reproductive arrow and animals the evolutionary, temporal arrow.
Their generational cycle is inverted: animals have faster, shorter vital cycles, since its temporal language is the faster, electronic, nervous language; while plants have longer life cycles at a lower ‘speed of informative processing’ – since they transmit chemical information through the hormonal system.
Departing from those 2 languages life evolved into a new scale of multicellular organization creating:
– Max. E. Chemical, multicellular organisms, plants that use hormonal languages.
– Max.I: ‘Electric’ organisms, multicellular animals that use the electronic language.
Recap. Plants, animal and fungi, the first 3 kingdoms of multicellular life are a ternary differentiation in e, TiƒxSpe and I species.
In Cyclical Time death is caused by the finite limits of fractal time and space. Death is a clear prove of the discontinuity of space and time. If we were continuous, that continuity of time and space would make us immortal and infinite. Which means that only the ∞ sum of fractal time-spaces or absolute Universe is eternal: the isomorphisms of temporal Entropy, the logos-mind of the Universe do not have and end nor a principle, because the sum of all the transformations of Entropy and information balances a dynamic Reality that never dies, remaining always in a relative, equal present. Reality exists ‘per in secula seculorum, amen’.
Only reproduction guarantees certain immortality, recreating our form in other region of space. Yet in all species the rate of reproduction also goes through 3 ages, and so when reproduction halts, not only the ‘cellular’ individual but the species of the ‘higher plane’ dies:
– Big bang phase: A new species multiplies very fast departing from a 1st individual.
– Steady state: Its reproductive rate stabilizes.
– Population Crunch: Finally it slows down to a halt, extinguishing the species.
Death is in fact the most obvious prove of the discontinuity of space and time. If we were continuous, that continuity of time and space would make us immortal and infinite. Thus only the infinite sum of quantic time-spaces, the absolute Universe is eternal.
For the rest of us only reproduction guarantees certain immortality. Yet the rate of reproduction of any species is also quantic and goes through the 3 ages, starting slow, increasing its rate and finally slowing down to a halt, extinguishing the species or type of DNA-cells of any organic system. So in a human being the number of divisions of any cell reaches up to 50, whereas in chickens it goes up to 20 divisions. The greater rate happens in the oldest, living species: the Galapagos turtle that divides 102 times its cells. E=10i=2 is in fact the commonest constant in information warping, from the protonic accumulation of form in the atomic table, which after 100 forms becomes unstable to the limit of human aging.
According to the ternary principle, 3 biological strategies however seem to succeed death:
– Max.E= Some simple systems (coelenterate) reverse its time clock.
– Max. Re: Cells ‘trick’ their organic time clocks, to free themselves from the servitude of death, by multiplying its quantity of reproductive genes – its DNA molecules. The record belongs to cancerous cells, very rich in DNA, from the reproductive uterus of Henrietta Lacks, the so-called HeLa cells.
– Max.I: Humans achieve partial immortality through cultural memes.
Is there a species whose number of reproductions is infinite, an immortal being? No. Since even the nucleons of the big-bang reproduced e60 times to create the Universe, shaping a similar reproductive curve to that of living beings that now has slowed down to a trickle. So all dies for the game to renew itself.
Causes of Physiological Death.
The opposite process to the creation of life and the creation of form is the destruction of form into Entropy or death, (I<E: Max. E x Min.i), equally common. As one feeds into the other and together balance the dual arrows of the Universe.
Thus, the fundamental cause of death is to exist beyond the balance of form between the E and I components of any St-field. All beings have limits of excess of Entropy and/or form, which once crossed will bring their extinction, as their Entropy and information quanta ‘explode’ and split, dissolving the networks that kept the form together and were its inner consciousness. If a particle explodes close to C speed and splits its Entropy/information parameters according to Lorentz equations, so does a human being after dying. His Entropy dissolves back into his ∆-1 simpler cells. And then, since all deaths are dual big-bang explosions, humans return finally to the molecular, amino acid level from where they departed.
If we want to be specific about the causes of death in human organisms, death is the product of an imbalance, either by an excess of Entropy that causes sudden death in minimal Time (Max. e=Min.i), through war, sudden sickness or accidents, or by the accumulation of temporal information that spends the Entropy of the being during its long 3rd age, leaving traces of past cycles in cells and physiological networks that cause their malfunction. In other words, the nervous, informative network exhausts the body, causing a Max.I=min. E imbalance, that wrinkles and breaks the body cells into death. But also the opposed phenomenon, an excess of Entropy caused death. In both cases the imbalance breaks the complementarity between the space and time content of the being. However, since the direction of living beings is towards the informative future, the informative imbalance is more frequent and shows in the ‘growth’ of time properties.
So old people are as time is, cyclical, memorial, curved, with discontinuous wrinkles that break the smooth continuity and linearity of young, spatial beings. That quantic, curving process happens in all the species of the Universe that age: cyclical wrinkles and quantum cracks occur not only in the skin of an old man but in the membranes of our cells, their Golgi apparatus and “Entropy” mitochondria. That loss of Entropy in any old being, which becomes quantized and implosive, with negative curvature, has manifold manifestations: cells shrink and their membranes no longer dilate. An old man measures a few centimeters less. The 2 networks, the Entropy network or membrane and the informative network become rigid, quantized and no longer reproduce. In human cells, collagen and elastin, the proteins of cells, loose their elasticity and expansive capacity, creating, informative connections among them. So happens to the rigid, cross-wrinkled skin of the old man. Meanwhile the energetic, metabolic capacity of the organism and its quantic cells diminishes.
In a more generic way information and time are parallel. So species with more information and less Entropy live longer, according to the Time-Space inversion: Max. E=Min.i. Thus for example, an animal that fasts systematically and receives less Entropy, lives longer (hungry rats live a 20% more). The female, informative sex with smaller expenditure of Entropy lives longer than the energetic male. A being that lives in a hot, energetic environment lives shorter than one living in a cold environment. Hibernation that slows the metabolic rate elongates life. There is also a proportional relationship between the informative weight of the brain and the life span of an animal: Max.i (brain weight) =Max.i (life-span); which in inverse to the proportional relation between the metabolic expenditure of Entropy and the life span of the being: Max. metabolic rate (Max. E) = Min. Life span= Min.i, proving once more the inversion of space/time. So humans with huge brains live much longer than lions with huge bodies.
An excess of energetic atoms diminish time existence: Free radicals, which are oxygenated, energetic molecules, with free electrons (the Entropy body of atoms), deteriorate cells and their accumulation with age is a major cause of death. The degeneration and disorder of those cells can be caused by energetic radiations (electromagnetic rays of max. Entropy cause the mutation and death of cells.) The increase of fat, Entropy cells causes the death. So doctors establish a direct lineal relation between the accumulation of lipofuscine and the death of a living organism. An excess of Entropy is the main cause of accidental death among youngsters. So a speedy car crash breaks the body and the shock of a weapon’s impact, a form of energetic metal, kills a human being.
Yet in generic terms, information that forms, carves and quantizes amorphous, continuous Entropy is the supreme cause of death. As the chisel of a sculptor creates form by destroying the marble, so does the game of existence: For example, elephants create the form of the savannah, when killing its trees; quantized hands are formed in a fetus, when interdigital cells commit suicide (apoptosis). So ducks, which do not kill them, have membranes in their hands. All those causes of death have created an equal number of scientific theories about death, all related to the inversion between spatial Entropy and temporal information and the balance between Entropy and information that defines existence, as opposed to its imbalance that causes death.
But what happens to the brain’s information stored in the brain, after death? Does it dissolve also, as body cells do; as the magnetic, informative field of a star does or the mass vortex of a Nuclear Bomb does? Or does it transcend, as the photonic light does, into the higher electron, or the seminal cell does when it evolves into a new macro-organism?
According to empirical descriptions of death and the general MST isomorphisms for all space-time fields, information ‘rewinds back’, travelling also to the past, becoming erased, as it happens to our cells.
So most likely the information of the being will no longer be. It will become untied Entropy, cellular form and then molecular or atomic quanta. Since when we are incinerated, we fall to the consciousness of the atom. Yet consciousness, ‘sensation’, the very essence of ‘existence’, never goes away, it only jumps from atom to cell to man and vice versa. The optimist believer might believe in the transcendence of the ‘informative mind’ to a ‘higher’ plane of existence with more information, that of a human super-organism or collective God, as in a palingenetic process that makes a cell transcend into an organism. The pessimist thinker might believe in the devolution of consciousness to the “obscure world”, with less information, of cells and atoms. It is what mystiques have explained in poetic terms as the opposition between the ascension to Heavens Vs. the quantic jump into Hell. So ∆±1 birth and death discontinuities are jumps between planes.
But how ‘sensorial perception’ changes in those discontinuities? It does so through the 2 antithetic sensations of TiƒxSpe existence, which are informative pain and energetic pleasure.
Those 2 paradoxical, antagonist sensations happen not only in men but also in animal life and perhaps in all atomic forms, because they are based in the geometric properties of information and Entropy. Indeed, pain is created by ‘pressure’ on our cells, which is an implosive, temporal movement, also related to the consciousness of information. While pleasure is caused by the ‘expansion of blood in the genital system, an energetic process. So we have the key duality of consciousness:
Since information is desirable, the negative arrow of pain balances the positive arrow of perception. On the other hand since everybody likes pleasure, it balances the negative arrow of Entropy that erases awareness; creating a ‘balance of wills’ that makes possible to wish both life and death. Thus, in terms of sensations, death will bring just a sudden pain, the peak of our ‘informative awareness’ towards the future, before we change ‘phase of existence’. Then death will be followed by a deep orgasm of energetic pleasure that erases all information, as we fall down the peak. Since pleasure is synonymous of Entropy, a travel to the past opposite to the awareness of perception, information and implosive pain, a trip to the informative future.
So after pain ends our will to live, we relax in a deep orgasm that erases information, reversing our space-time field, as our consciousness moves towards the past. Then the brain rewinds back the memories of its existence that cross for a last time through the ‘soul’ of the brain, more likely a neuron’s network.
Yet, because time accelerates in smaller beings, the speed of times of the brain accelerates in that rewinding back, during which our black hole vortex or soul, the informative singularity of the mind, feeds back towards youth, perceiving and erasing a last time those memories. That is why in the 3 days of death of our organic system, as our body becomes corrupted and our consciousness dies, we can recall all those long years of existence at ‘fast motion’, as we rewind faster a tape than when we see it. That is why those who woke up from death could describe it as a trip to “the past” through its memories, because after death consciousness will perceive life “the other way around” at the faster time rhythm of cellular life. Then, finally we will enter back the uterus and return to the ovum’s cellular consciousness; and then again we will die in a second big-bang, burnt in a crematory or feeding the insects that reduce us to molecular form. But ‘we’ will no longer be human. As a Hindi legend say,’ an ant was once Indra, a king of kings’. For those who are ego-driven, there is no need to worry; the game is limited in its variations. So you are in a way immortal. Since we are repeated in infinite places of space and time; you will be born in another planet to live your life again.
Yet, far more important than the death of any diminutive MST field, is the death of the ∆+1 scale of existence, the death of living species or human civilizations, related to the process of evolution and extinction of the Earth’s ecosystems…
Recap. Death is brief in time, exploding in space the information of the being. Death is caused by an imbalance between the Entropy and information of a system. Energetic beings live shorter than informative beings. All systems have a finite duration in time. So death requires reproduction for the species to become immortal.