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SUMMARY:

Molecules in time:

 

 

TIME ISOMORPHISM

Thermodynamics is time’s arrow, while chemical kinetics is time’s clock.

The vast amount of work done in chemical kinetics has led to the conclusion that some chemical reactions go in a single step; these are known as elementary reactions. Other reactions go in more than one step and are said to be stepwise, composite, or complex.

The half-life.

A useful rate measure is the half-life of a reactant, which is defined as the time that it takes for half of the initial amount to undergo reaction. For a special type of kinetic behavior (first-order kinetics; see below Some kinetic principles), the half-life is independent of the initial amount. A common and straightforward example of a half-life independent of the initial amount is radioactive substances. Uranium-238, for example, decays with a half-life of 4.5 billion years; of an initial amount of uranium, half of that amount will have decayed in that period of time. The same behavior is found in many chemical reactions.

Even when the half-life of a reaction varies with the initial conditions, it is often convenient to quote a half-life, bearing in mind that it applies only to the particular initial conditions. Consider, for example, the reaction in which hydrogen and oxygen gases combine to form water; the chemical equation is

2H2 + O2 {long right arrow} 2H2O.

If the gases are mixed together at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, nothing observable will happen over long periods of time. However, reaction does occur, with a half-life that is estimated to be more than 12 billion years, which is roughly the age of the universe. If a spark is passed through the system, the reaction occurs with explosive violence, with a half-life of less than one-millionth of a second. This is a striking example of the great range of rates with which chemical kinetics is concerned.

There are many possible processes that proceed too slowly to be studied experimentally, but sometimes they can be accelerated, often by the addition of a substance known as a catalyst. Some reactions are even faster than the hydrogen-oxygen explosionÐifor example, the combination of atoms or molecular fragments (called free radicals) where all that occurs is the formation of a chemical bond. Some modern kinetic investigations are concerned with even faster processes, such as the breakdown of highly energetic and therefore transient molecules, where times of the order of femtoseconds (fs; 1 fs = 10–15 second) are involved.

to change the conditions so that the reactions occur in a reasonable time, Increasing the temperature can have a strong effect on the reaction rate.

Evolution of atomic orbitals: Time arrows in molecules.

The next scale of atomic evolution is the molecular scale.

Atoms form herds called molecules, joined by light and gravitational forces that distribute ‘Ðimotions’ and information among them. Though we differentiate molecules in organic forms derived from carbon and inorganic forms, both follow the vital cycles and organic topologies of st-points made of multiple times-spaces:

– Molecules enact all the time cycles/arrows of st-points.

– They go through the 3±∆ ages of all systems, which in molecules are the 3±∆ states of matter.

– Molecules have the same 3 zoned topological structure of all st-points with its dominant atoms with better nuclear or electronic structure, occupying the central foci or informative region of those molecules; while smaller slave atoms that surround them act as a relative body that absorbs waves that carry ‘Ðimotions’ and information from the external world.

Thus, in terms of form the 3rd postulate defines its dual geometry:

-Self-similar atoms co-exist in ‘parallel planes’.

– Dominant and submissive atoms establish perpendicular, hierarchical structures in the dimension of relative ‘height’ with the dominant atom on the center or top region of the system.

And in terms of function, those parallel or hierarchical structures between the atoms of molecules are regulated by the duality of social evolution among self-similar species Vs. Darwinian devolution among different species with unequal exi=stential force, described by the 3rd postulate.

Both together define the geometric forms of many compounds derived from those relationships and the final outcome of encounters between atoms that form molecules. For example, atoms that have a better spatial or informative brain, with a more harmonic orbital shape or a higher mass, have max. Exi force and become top predator atoms that dominate molecules, penetrating its territory perpendicularly: It is the case shown in graph A.60 where an atom of the 7th column captures an atom from the 1st column to reach the perfect form of a noble atom, engulfing it within its structure.

– The social electronic clouds of molecules show also the 3 space-time ideal forms:

         – Max. Tƒ: π orbitals join several electrons into a social, cyclical ring.

         – Max Sp: Sigma orbitals are lineal orbitals, more energetic than the pi orbitals.

Diatomic orbitals are balanced, ‘elliptic’ orbitals created between 2 equal atoms that share their electrons.

– Social, electronic orbitals require less ‘Ðimotions’ and hence are more stable than the sum of the orbitals of its single atoms, which means there is a strong arrow of social evolution among atoms that dominates the individual arrow, as in all other universal quanta.

– Also when we study the informative ‘brain’, the nucleus of atoms, the same phenomenon happens: the most stable and common nuclei are those in which their reproductive, ‘female’ neutrons and informative, ‘male’ protons form ∆-p couples.

In both cases the biological, existential interpretation in organic terms is obvious: systems prefer to exist in complementary couples with 2 self-similar species, dominant in informative and reproductive functions to form a brain/body system able to absorb better the ‘Ðimotions’ of the ecosystem, or in parallel social herds with equal forms than alone, because their simultaneous åctions as a couple or group makes them stronger. So most stars form dual or ternary groups; and so do galaxies, atoms and human beings in the 3 known scales of the physical Universe.

Those isomorphisms of existence transform the atomic table into an organic table that explains the properties of atoms and social molecules in terms of organicism and the 5 postulates of i-logic geometry.

Galilean paradox applied to orbitals: 1st and 2nd body territories.

Another set of isomorphisms proper of all systems apply to electronic orbitals: the existence of ‘internal’ and ‘external’ territories, which the informative center treats – according to the Galilean paradox of relative distance/importance to the focus – with different value:

The cellular unit of any st-point is established by the minimal fractal, informative structure with fractal parts that repeats the bigger form and often corresponds to the ‘informative radius’ of its central topology: In a single atom it is the zone limited by the first orbital, or S2 spherical electron, which is not shared. In molecules the central atom has also a first, formal, regular body-territory, hardly shared with other molecules, made of slave atoms bonded to it with dense electromagnetic flows, called Van der Waals and London forces that the central atom use to perceive or feed on. In a cell, the organelles of the intermediate territory are not shared. Humans do not share their home properties.

Animals do not share their den. Yet all systems that have ‘an excess of ‘Ðimotions’’ can share the second territory in the limits of its st-membrane. So atoms share the external orbitals and humans their secondary properties and molecules share their most external atoms, which are those beyond the limiting border of its cellular unit.

Recap. Atoms form social molecules, which also follow the isomorphisms of i-logic geometry, its topologies and its arrows of time.

Molecules: Darwinian Vs. social bondage: ions and networks

Once and again, the evolution of species chooses between the 2 arrows of order and ‘Ðimotions’, of social communication or Darwinian devolution, described by the 3rd Postulate:

Self-similar herds

Atoms show affinity for 2 kind of other atoms:

-Atoms with a similar brain-organ, contiguous in the atomic table.

-Or atoms, which are in the same column of the periodic table and have similar electronic bodies.

They form the strongest 2 types of molecular, electronic bondage. Thus social bondage between equal atoms is dominant and gathers most atoms together, creating extensive networks of planetary size.

Hierarchical organisms among atoms of different exi=stential force

Ionic Darwinian bondage happens among atoms with different ST force. They are more rare and smaller, less stable, but more active as individual forms (in the same manner than individual bacteria are more active than organic cells, but far less complex).

Thus we classify all molecules in 3±∆ types of molecules of growing Existential Force, Sp X Tƒ, and stability, 2 parameters directly proportional to the degree of equality of their atoms:

(∆-1): Lonely atoms or diatomic, covalent molecules.

Top predator atoms, which don’t need to increase their individual Sp X Tƒ åctions. They tend to act alone or in diatomic molecules, made with 2 equal atoms that create a ‘covalent bondage’, stronger than any ionic molecule where one atom is a predator form. Covalent molecules show electrons with opposite spins that balance the ‘vortex directions’ of their charges, as it happens with the 2 electrons of an atomic orbital. Their orbital clouds shape ellipses in which each equal atomic nucleus occupies one focus.

The reason of that topology that happens in all scales of reality is again both geometrical and functional: Any topological network, acts as a relative vital space, based in the best geometry that positions all its st-points at the shortest equal distance of both its external, energetic membrane and central, informative singularity.

Thus, the sphere is the perfect form of single-centered systems. In dual st-point systems the ellipse is the morphology that locates those 2 points at the minimal shared distance of the membrane and the minimal, equal distance of its center. In the ellipse morphology and function again come together. So their 2 centers can enact Sp X Tƒ, simultaneous åctions with the external world in all the points of its membrane at the same time. Since the law of the ellipse makes always equal the sum of the distances from both foci to the membrane.

Max. Sp: Ions: Minimal Sp X Tƒ equality & Stability.

Ions form Darwinian, Prey-Predator relationships.

Elements in opposed columns of the atomic table tend to behave in a Darwinian way, as one needs the orbital ‘Ðimotions’ of the other to feed its own electronic body and complete its form. Thus the weaker element with less atomic mass will become prey of the stronger one, forming together unequal Hierarchical ions. Ions are small molecules in which the dominant atom in body valences or brain number (atomic weight) controls lighter atoms with fewer valences that become part of its external body-membrane and process temporal ‘Ðimotions’ for the central atoms. They are the smallest molecules, easy to reproduce given its minimal form but unstable, (Min.Ionisation ‘Ðimotions’) because their enslaved atoms which try to escape its bondage.

S=T: Corporal affinity. Micro-molecules.

Elements that have spatial, corporal affinity and occupy the same electronic column, evolve socially, forming complex, strong molecular compounds. The main arrows/åctions of those molecules are:

– Max.Sp; Max. Tƒ: They process ‘Ðimotions’ and electromagnetic information, creating with them more complex forces (London forces, Van der Waals forces).

– S, ∏: They associate their electronic orbitals in linear clouds (s) or cyclical, pi rings.

– Re: They reproduce in chemical reactions.

Yet micro-molecules form smaller networks than those made of equal atoms, (crystals) and have less informative complexity than atomic systems based on ‘brain’ affinity (organic molecules).

Max. Tƒ: Body & Brain Affinity: Complementary, organic molecules

Given their affinity, they give birth to the more complex molecular systems and create most of the molecules in the Universe.

Maximal affinity occurs among atoms with similar atomic, brain, weight and orbital body form, correlative in the Atomic table. They become the 3 complementary, e-Sp X Tƒ-o, components of organic molecules with 3 st-zones:

– Max.Sp: in life organisms, oxygen is the atom we breathe and the component of water that fills the intermediate spaces of the cell.

– Max. Tƒ: Nitrogen, is the informative atom, hyper-abundant on the DNA and brain cells.

– S=T: Carbon is the structural, reproductive atom that shapes the body and creates the membranes of organic cells.

In machines made of metal, silicon and gold (Max. Tƒ) are the informative atoms that act as the brains of advanced robots; iron (Max. Sp) is the structural atom, with Max.Ionization ‘Dimotions’ that form the ‘membrane’ or body of the machine; and copper and silver (S=T), carry the electric ‘Dimotions’ that feeds the body/brain systems.

∆+1: Absolute equality=Max. Social Evolution: Crystals.

Finally atoms belonging to the same species associate in the biggest, symmetric molecular fields, called crystals that ‘transcend’ into macro-social systems.

Recap. The social evolution of atoms in molecules creates different species, according to their degree of affinity, which follow the isomorphisms of the 3rd postulate of self-similarity. The most perfect molecules are those with self-similar electronic bodies, which form ternary, organic systems of energetic, reproductive and informative atoms and molecules made of equal atoms that form informative networks, called crystals that transcend into a collective plane of existence through its ‘mental images’ of the external universe.

The 3±∆ cycles of space-time existence in molecules.

We observe in all molecules the 5 cycles/arrows of space-time that complete their existence: the energetic, informative, reproductive, social and generational cycle. While the most complex systems with maximal information (body and brain affinity), also show the transcendental arrow forming complementary, life beings and crystal minds.

Molecules also possess organic constants for each of those cycles. Yet their cyclical rhythms are extremely fast as it corresponds to microcosms, according to the opposite properties of spatial and temporal information: Min Se = Max Tƒ. So from the human p.o.v. we perceive those fast cycles as types of motions related to the 3±∆ states of matter:

The generational cycle and the 3±∆ ages of molecules are the 3±∆ states of matter: the gas, energetic state, the liquid, balanced state and the solid informative state.

Max. Sp: The ‘Ðimotions’ cycles of molecules produce lineal movement, which is maximal in energetic gases that move in continuous lineal trajectories at a speed of ±300 m/s. Accordingly, we measure the ‘DImotions’ of a molecule with the parameter of temperature, the fractal unit of the lineal åctions of the atomic world. This is the origin of the arrow of ‘Dimotions’ analyzed first in studies on the motion of steam gas. Yet the arrow of ‘Dimotions’ is only dominant on molecular, gas states; and certainly the biggest error of science is to have derived from a local arrow a Universal arrow, which physicists believe to be the only arrow of all the systems and forces of the Universe.

– Max. Tƒ: Informative cycle. Molecules vibrate in a discontinuous back and forth movement, around 10ˆ13 times a second. And they transform lineal movement into cyclical vibration when they change their reversible ‘age’= state. So when we lower the temperature of a gas, it becomes a liquid and the vibration of the molecules increases as their speed decreases. Then the lineal simple, pure energetic movement of the gas becomes a complex vibrating, informative movement, forwards and backwards: Sp-> e<=>o. Most complex systems are reproduced in the liquid states (organic life).

– Social cycle: Molecular liquids evolve socially, decreasing their ‘Dimotions’ and increasing their form during their 3rd age, becoming a solid in which the vibration acquires order and rhythm creating macromolecules, called rocks and crystals.

– Reproductive cycle: Finally molecules reproduce departing, from their simpler chemical parts through chemical reactions. Let us study this cycle, which is the fundamental ‘will’ of all systems.

Recap. Molecules show the 6 arrows of time in its motions and gas=energetic, liquid=reproductive and informative, solid states.

Reproduction of molecules: Law of chemical balance.

According to the ternary principle there are 3 types of molecular reproduction:

-Max. Sp: Darwinian events in which top predators molecules capture simpler atoms or molecules as ‘Dimotions’ of its reproduction.

-S=T: Symbiotic events of molecular reproduction, in which 2 molecules of similar top predator Sp X Tƒ force, switch atomic parts between them, creating more complex molecules till reaching a state of equilibrium.

-Max. Tƒ: Informative crystals that reproduce their macro-fractal patterns as they add equal atoms.

Max. Sp: Simple feeding: Darwinian reactions.

Reproduction requires feeding on simpler fractal, ‘Dimotions’ parts. Thus when a top predator molecular form appears in a field rich on relative ‘Ðimotions’, made of simpler individual atoms and micro-molecules, it starts a chemical reaction, which we observe as a reproductive growing ‘radiation’ of the same molecule. However to activate that reproduction the molecule requires a min. amount of extra-’Ðimotions’ in the form of temperature (threshold of activation of exoergic reactions).

This happens in all reproductive processes, which only occur when the parental species finds a field rich of ‘Ðimotions’, given the exhausting nature of such processes, which in a field poor on ‘Ðimotions’ could jeopardize the survival of the parental form. So most animals reproduce in spring when food is abundant; most molecular crystals reproduce when temperature reaches a certain level, and women need a 175 of body fat to reproduce. Those reproductive radiations of molecules are similar to the expansive radiations of a top predator over a population of preys, shaping a similar standard Bell curve of populations, called in this specific case a Boltzmann curve, with the 3 ages:

– Max ‘Ðimotions’ of activation. When ‘Ðimotions’ is hyper abundant after the threshold of activation is crossed, the radiation of new chemical compounds starts at an explosive rate.

– S=T; Transition state. The radiation will expand till it ‘saturates’ and exhausts the ‘Ðimotions’ of the chemical ecosystem in which it feeds, reaching a dynamic steady state of balance similar to that between preys and predators. However in complex ‘reproductive radiations’ that curve might appear as a wave with several evolutionary ‘interphases’. Then the final chemical compound will be the product of a series of intermediary reactions.

– 3rd age. Law of Chemical Balance. Finally, the explosive reaction ends. Only a few new molecules will be created, when some of the predator molecules become destroyed or new, simpler micro-molecular preys enter the ecosystem. Thus a final chemical equilibrium is reached between both type of molecules, showing a constant of balance, which is a specific case of the generic balance between predators and preys:

                             K = Tƒ: Products / Sp:Reactants

What quantity of both types of molecules exists in that final equilibrium? It will depend on the relative Sp X Tƒ force of the predator products and the reactant preys, which in abstract chemistry is measured by the ‘speed of the reaction’ and the relative bondage ‘Ðimotions’ of the molecules. In most cases of Darwinian, chemical reactions that value is huge, as the predator molecules exhaust the supply of its victims, before stopping its reproduction. Yet in certain symbiotic reactions K tends to 1, when both products and reactants are species of similar Ox Sp power.

Tƒ=Sp: Dual, symbiotic reproduction.

Molecules are divided in 2 regions, an I-brain, an S=T Body and an external ecosystem of energetic temperature. For example, an amino acid has an amino-brain, a central carbohydrate body and an acid-leg system that moves the molecule, breaking water molecules.

Thus in chemistry, following the Fractal, Ternary Principle, we can calculate the relative top predator power of a molecule, according to the atomic weight or its brain atoms; the electro-negativity of its leg system that moves the molecule, taking electrons from other lesser molecules and the morphological efficiency of its body, ruled by the 3rd postulate of equality, which makes covalent bondage between equal molecules, such as C=C=C structures, far more difficult to break.

Those 3 parameters used also by inorganic chemistry make certain molecules more efficient than others. They are the metric measure of the ‘why’ of symbiotic reactions in which 2 similar top predator molecular forms create more efficient Sp X Tƒ molecules by redesigning the brain and body components of the reactants.

Max. Tƒ: Social Evolution

Finally individual molecules gather together spontaneously, creating social groups that grow into symmetric crystals.

In all those reactions the final products are 2 new molecules with higher Sp X Tƒ power than the initial products, showing the existence of a dominant arrow of information and social evolution in the Universe, which constantly increases the existential power of the whole that combines that of its components.

Recap. The law of chemical reaction is the reproductive law of molecules. According to the ternary principle there are 3 types of molecular reproduction, each one subdivided in 3 ages.

 

Type of reproductive radiations in molecules.

If the reader has followed these lessons, he will realize of the simple method that allows classifying all systems according to the ternary topologies and 3±∆ arrows of time of all systems. In any of those scales there will be certain species that will dominate the ecosystem and reproduce in higher measure. Generally speaking those species always maximize the energetic, informative, reproductive and social arrows. And so while the Universe constantly creates new variations only the most efficient which find an ‘econiche’ of survival perfecting one of those 4 arrows of time survive and reproduce, using less perfect species as their prey.

In chemical reactions the molecules that reproduce more are top predator with a higher ST force, since they maximize the 4, ∑ (Sp<=>Tƒ), elements of any i-logic field:

-Max. Sp: Species with max. ‘Ðimotions’ (better or bigger body that processes Sp to reproduce the molecule). They are molecular ions with the greater number of valences that accept the maximal number of ‘Ðimotions’ and information flows between the atom and the outer world – hence they have the max. action-reaction speed.

– Sp<=>Tƒ: Complementary species created with atoms similar in body and brain, correlative on the Table, like O (Max.Sp), C (Max. <=>) and N (Max. Tƒ). They maximize the internal communication between its atoms with multiple inner networks of ‘Ðimotions’ and information between their orbital bodies and nuclear brains (higher density of Van der Waals forces). They are the organic compounds that create life.

– Max. Tƒ: Crystals are molecules made with atoms of the same nucleic number, which create in their geometric, symmetric centers, virtual images of information of the world that surrounds them.

∆+1: Those 2 complex molecules, able to evolve socially, transcend beyond the social herd state, creating ‘networks’:

– Carbohydrate organisms grow to the size of human beings in ternary st-structures, in which carbon molecules shape structural proteins, nitrogen molecules shape informative ADN and oxygens and water fill the intermediate space-time of the organism.

– Crystals evolve socially to the size of planetary cores. Since, according to the 3rd postulate of equality, crystals are molecules made with 1 or 2 equal atoms, hence able to evolve socially without apparent limit, unlike molecules made of different atoms that merely form small compounds.

Recap. Top predator systems are those who maximize their energetic, informative, reproductive or social skills. They radiate in growing numbers, surviving in the future by feeding in simpler species. In the world of molecules, those 4 arrows are maximized by ions (Max. Sp), organic molecules (max. Reproduction) and informative crystals. Crystals and organic molecules transcend into complex social macro-organisms.

 

Crystals. The perfect geometrical, fractal unit.

image076

One of the more clear proofs of the existence of p.o.v.s, whose negantropic, informative arrows reproduce fractal forms, diminish entropy and increase the order of the Universe, is given by crystal structures, whose central atom emerges as a fractal knot of time arrows, an i-logic hierarchical p.o.v. that controls and reorders the position of all the other atoms of the system in regular formations that maximize its symmetric perception of the external world. The proof is the fact that crystals only show structures whose geometry is efficient as informative knots in which several flows of electronic forces and light converge on the central knot: Crystals adopt only 7 symmetric morphologies, which make their central atoms, simultaneous, present, symmetric focus of temporal Entropy coming from the external ecosystem, through its slave body of atoms or molecules of lesser exi=stential force. Those are the only 7 canonical types of crystals that exist in nature.

Let us consider the main existential cycles of crystals:

The informative cycle: the sharp focus of crystals.

Crystals create virtual minds of light that we see in their interior. They are focused images that create at a reduced scale a virtual world, mirror of the external Universe, as an eye does. Thus crystals have only regular symmetric forms that act as an eye does, establishing an objective, informative image of the external world, repeated at a smaller scale within the informative center of the crystal. In the graph, crystals show a clear relationship between spatial geometry and informative perception: only those crystals whose central atom of max. mass=information can observe symmetrically the temporal Entropy coming from the external world through its slave atoms, form a sharp equidistant focus and survive. While forms, which are not symmetric, at least in a bidimensional plane of space, such as form B, do not exist.

All crystals shape macro-social aggregations of billions of molecules that acquire geometrical forms similar to the 3 regular polyhedrons of the Universe, the hexagon, the tetrahedron and the cube, repeated ad infinitum. So the number of crystals is reduced to 32 possible networks configurations that are combinations of the 7 basic systems of the image, with symmetric axes.

The reason is obvious: polyhedrons allow a correct, balanced absorption and emission of Entropy and information from all the relative directions of the external Universe coming through those axes. So the ultimate why of crystal’s morphologies is to perform the 3±∆ Entropy-information cycles of the existential game. In that regard bidimensional hexagons, three-dimensional cubes and tetrahedrons are combinations of 2 forms, the triangle and the square, which represent the minimal ternary and quaternary systems that complete the 4 cyclical arrows of an i-logic field.

Scientists talk of ‘spatial symmetry’ as a property common to all scales of the Universe, both in the world of sub particles and molecules. It basically means that a temporal, informative particle/form, like a crystal, whatever its position is respect to the external Universe, will maintain unchanged respect to its neutral focus or informative central point the relative distance and symmetry of all the molecules that shape the crystal. In this way the relative virtual world of the central atom will not change its form when it rotates, vibrates around its central atom or moves lineally, but only its perspective, as it happens with our eye’s image shaped by the ‘crystalline’ when we move the head. If those inner axes and distances change then the world structure becomes unfocused, as when man takes hallucinogens that change the brain composition or we introduce impurities in a crystal that changes sharply its focus.

In the graph we see the 7 basic possible crystal configurations in which any rotation maintains the inner structure invariant. They are either planar, bidimensional symmetries, triangular, 3-dimensional forms or 4-dimensional, cubic symmetries, the most perfect ones in a 4-dimensional Universe. For that reason the 32 basic crystal configurations are subspecies of the P-cube or primitive cube that generates all other crystals. Accordingly the biggest crystal networks are cubic networks. And the hardest crystal we know is the carbon tetrahedron, the diamond.

It is also the most expensive item known to man. As if we knew subconsciously that a diamond has a soul, a virtual world in its inner core. Thus, we can create all complex crystals adding or subtracting to that primitive first cube new atoms, or deforming slightly its angles and edges. The result is the so-called orthorhombic system where 2 of the edges of the plane are elongated respect to the 2 others in a ‘relative lineal direction’ of Entropy; and the more complex clinic, and triclinic systems with non-straight angles between atoms, adapted to ecosystems in which the Entropy and form comes to the crystal from different angles. All those crystalline systems place sometimes a top predator atom in the central point of the cube, or in the geometrical center of each face. The parallelism between the informative, symmetric morphology of crystals and the symmetry of the inferior scale of orbitals is evident: In sd orbitals the 3‘d’ external, lineal, spatial orbitals are integrated by the cyclical, informative central ‘s’ orbital, which in crystals is occupied by an atom.

Crystals are the scalar bridge between the molecular world of solids and the macro world of planets, made with 3 non-AE regions: a ‘liquid/gaseous’ membrane inhabited by complex organic beings, an intermediate zone of rocks and a crystal core, the informative center of a planet. For example, the Earth seems to have a macro-crystal of iron hexagons in its center and Neptune a diamond crystal. Since Crystal minds maximize their position in the external Universe to acquire a central point, as a focus of image formation and fractal reproduction of its crystal structures, they are responsible for the creation of order and form in the Universe and can play a key role balancing the orbital position of those planets and modifying its magnetic fields as they absorb external gravito-magnetic waves from stars and black holes.

Energetic cycles.

Entropy and information cycles are intertwined by the Law of transformation of Entropy into information, shaping dual rhythms of emission and absorption of both substances: Sp<=>Tƒ.

So crystals also absorb and feed on light Entropy, vibrating with it as quartzes do; or emitting that Entropy, transformed into focused information, when they polarize light, ordering the different vibrating directions of photons into a single direction that packs better Entropy and information in highly ordered light rays with enormous Sp X Tƒ power. Further on crystals can create 4 dimensional holographic images, out of 2 bidimensional surfaces; trans-forming continuous electromagnetic Entropy into discontinuous, highly informative, focused packages; changing the frequency of light, absorbing certain types of light or filtrating only 1 frequency color, etc.

Social evolution and reproduction of crystals.

Social evolution and reproduction are also 2 intertwined cycles: Most systems reproduce a first seminal cell and then evolve its morphology in a series of dual Reproduction->Evolution cycles that finally create a macro-organism. So happens in ‘palingenetic’ crystals, which evolve socially and reproduce departing from an initial, seminal ‘cellular unit’, till creating macro-crystals.

Abstract geologists study the conditions, which determine the growth of crystals. A liquid state is the best, balanced state to reproduce and evolve complex forms also in crystals. Most crystals are reproduced dissolving its initial atomic components in certain liquids.

Those initial components are called, even by abstract geologists, nutrients, since they nurture the creation of the crystal, which takes place at a fast pace, thanks to the easiness by which liquids, the S=T reproductive state of matter, allow the combination and random contact between those nutrients that socialize into a cellular crystal unit, to which new crystal units peg themselves. Thus crystals reproduce as a seminal radiation, since the first crystal precipitates the creation of further crystals around it, as in a reproductive process that grows new cells around the seed or the ovum. So new nutrients come around the organic crystal and the crystal grows over the trophic pyramid of nutrients, till they are exhausted and the crystal stops its growth. Then a balanced steady state is reached, as the external cover of the crystal dissolves and grows back cyclically within the liquid.

Since according to the 3rd postulate social evolution happens among equals, crystals are formed only with 1 or 2 type of atoms. Crystals with more than 2 atoms are rare; so are crystals with a great quantity of impure atoms within their network. Crystals are social entities formed by millions of atoms, which repeat the so-called minimal cellular unit, growing radially as they reproduce their forms through mathematical structures called fractals, which mimic them in bigger polyhedral st-scales. Those fractal structures exist in all molecules and crystals where there is a central knot, from where the radial, symmetrical faces grow, guided by the central knot.

Thus crystals can ‘transcend’ between 2 planes of existence far more easily than we humans do, from micro cells into macro-cellular existence, when a micro-organic crystal becomes a macro-organic crystal. Yet those crystals have, regardless of size, the same configuration that the seminal cell of the crystal. It is the First Law of Crystallography: The angles between the faces of any crystal are always the same for all sizes in a crystal of the same species. This law has a creative exception, as each minimal cell can combine with other crystalline cells into symbiotic, more complex, dual ‘sexual crystals’, and a destructive exception, when impurities and fractures happen in the process of crystallization.

So crystals grow into huge ‘cellular networks’ by adding to a regular atomic polyhedron, another regular polyhedron and another… till creating networks of millions of regular polyhedrons that can reach the size of a planetary core.

Recap. Crystals are highly ordered, yet dynamic, organic systems in which flows of electromagnetic or electronic Entropy and information enact the 5 cyclical åctions of any space-time system. The central top predator atoms form a symmetric eye-network structure able to form a mental image of the external Universe. In Nature only regular crystals that allow such images to form exist. Crystals might also be the central mind of planetary bodies, which have crystals in its center.

 

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